Autoimmune Case study
Case study ay Grommet Autoimmune disorder case study Autoimmune diseases: An autoimmune disease is any of a large group of diseases characterized by abnormal functioning of the immune system that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against your own tissues or normal cells by mistake; the body fails to tell the difference between self and non-self. There are several dozen kinds of autoimmune diseases, risk factors depend somewhat on the particular illness.
In general, researchers have found strong links to gender, age, genetics, and race.
Females are almost three times as likely as males to have an autoimmune disease, with adolescent girls and young women being at greatest risk. Most autoimmune diseases affect younger and middle-aged people. Some illnesses begin specially in childhood. A family history of autoimmune disease puts a child at higher risk.
In fact, its been estimated that about one-third of the risk of developing an autoimmune disease is tied to something in a child’s genes. Finally, some children of different races may be more prone to having certain autoimmune diseases.
Bowel incontinence: Bowel incontinence is the loss of bowel control, leading to an involuntary passage of stool. This can range from occasionally leaking a small amount of stool and passing gas, to completely losing control of bowel movements.
Causes of bowel incontinence include chronic constipation, chronic laxative use, collector or bowel surgery, decreased awareness of sensation of rectal fullness, emotional problems, genealogical, prostate or rectal surgery, injury to the anal muscles due to Childbirth (in women), nerve or muscle damage (from trauma, tumor, or radiation), severe diarrhea that overwhelms the ability to control passage of stool, severe hemorrhoids or rectal prolapsed, and stress of unfamiliar environment. In people with bowel incontinence due to diarrhea, medications such as lopsided (Medium) may be used to control the diarrhea and improve bowel incontinence.
Other antibacterial medications include anti-choleric medications (belladonna or atropine), which reduce intestinal secretions and movement of the bowel.
Opium derivatives paregoric or codeine) or dependability (limit), as well as lopsided (Medium) increase intestinal tone and decrease movement of the bowel. Other medications used to control bowel incontinence include drugs that reduce water content in the tools (activated charcoal or Cooperate) or that absorb fluid and add bulk to the stools (Metallic). Among individuals over age 65, most surveys find that women experience bowel incontinence more often than men.
Most bowel problems are benign in nature, but a change in normal bowel function could be an early symptom of cancer. Specifically, celiac disease and Crown’s disease are two autoimmune disorders that could cause bowel incontinence. Dysphasia: Dysphasia is a condition in which swallowing or chewing is difficult or painful.
The problem can range from having difficulty swallowing to being completely unable to swallow. Signs to dysphasia include coughing or choking when eating or drinking, bringing food back up, or having the sensation that food is stuck in the throat.
Dysphasia can be caused by conditions affecting the nervous system such as stroke, Parkinson, head injury, brain tumor, or dementia. Individuals with autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and anesthesia gravies can also develop dysphasia. Furthermore, it can be caused by obstruction of the throat like mouth or throat cancer, radiotherapy, (which leaves behind scar tissue), Castro- esophageal reflux disease, (GOODS), COOP, and infections like tuberculosis and hours.
Lastly, it can also be caused by muscular conditions like salesclerks and challis.
Dysphasia can also be drug induced, and can be classified into one of three categories: dysphasia as a side effect, dysphasia as a complication of therapeutic action, and medication-induced esophageal injury. Examples of medications in each category are provided based on therapeutic classification. Specifically, the role of dysphasia in multiple sclerosis and the agents that have been linked with dysphasia are discussed For someone with a high degree of dysphasia, treatment can include swallowing harpy, dietary changes, and feeding tubes.
Someone with a low degree of dysphasia can be treated with medications.
Specifically, proton pump inhibitors, Pip’s) treat indigestion and can improve symptoms of dysphasia, and botulism toxin can help when muscles of the throat are too stiff to allow food to enter. Surgery is also an option for someone with dysphasia. Hepatic encephalopathy: Hepatic encephalopathy is a worsening of brain function that occurs when the liver is no longer able to remove toxic substances in the blood.
Hepatic encephalopathy is caused by diseases that decrease liver function such as Rossini or hepatitis. It is common in those with chronic liver disease, however the exact cause is unknown Hepatic encephalopathy can occur as an acute, reversible disease, or as a chronic, progressive disease.
Symptoms can be sudden and severe or slow and progressive and include breath with a musty odor, changes in sleep patterns, mild confusion, forgetfulness, mental fogginess, personality or mood changes, poor concentration, poor Judgment, worsening of hand writing and small hand movements.
More severe symptoms include shaking of hands and arms, agitation, seizures, disorientation, drowsiness, inappropriate behavior, severe resonantly changes, slurred speech, and slowed movement, Jaundice, and cites Hepatic encephalopathy can be diagnosed by doing a complete blood count or homoerotic check for anemia, CT scan of the head or MR., BEEF, Liver Function Test, or by checking promoting time, serum ammonia levels, sodium levels in blood, potassium levels in blood, BUN test, and by checking creating levels. Patients with severe, repeated cases of encephalopathy may be told to reduce protein in the diet to lower ammonia production.
However, dietary counseling is important, because too little protein in the diet may cause malnutrition.
Critically ill patients may need specially formulated intravenous or tube feedings. Lactose may be given to prevent intestinal bacteria from creating ammonia, and as a laxative to remove blood from the intestines. Neomycin may also be used to reduce ammonia production by Intestinal bacteria. Irritation, a new antibiotic, is also detective in hepatic encephalopathy. Sedatives, tranquilizer, and any other medications that are broken down by the liver should be avoided if possible.
Medications containing ammonium lunching certain antacids) should also be avoided. Other medications and treatments may be recommended. They may have varying results. Hyperglycemia: Hyperglycemia is a condition where an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. The most common cause of which is diabetes, however, certain drugs can give rise to hyperglycemia; inattentiveness allow the blood vessels to relax, thereby increasing the blood flow into the body causing hyperglycemia.
Sociolinguistics mimic the body’s stress hormones released by the adrenal glands, causing blood glucose levels to rise.
Many types of diuretics lower levels of potassium in the blood causing the decreased release of insulin from the increase, which is responsible for the transport of glucose, thus causing blood glucose levels to rise. Individuals with autoimmune disorders that are taking instrumentation medications to treat the disorder have a high risk of developing hyperglycemia and secondary diabetes because they may alter the way your body manages and processes glucose. Hyperglycemia: More commonly known as “high cholesterol”, hyperglycemia means too much fat content in the blood.
Our bodies use a certain amount of cholesterol every day, but sometimes the system gets imbalanced, causing too much fat to build up in the blood.
This can be caused by either genetics or diet. Specifically, individuals that are obese, frequently consume large amounts of alcohol, have kidney disease, or are diabetic are at an extremely high risk for high cholesterol; one of the more common secondary causes of hyperglycemia is hypothyroidism. Certain drugs like sociolinguistics can elevate triglycerides and raise levels of Heads. However, hyperglycemia can usually be reversed by diet changes and exercise.
Drugs and medications are also available for the treatment of high cholesterol. For example, stating work in the liver to prevent the formulation of cholesterol and are most effective at lowering OLD cholesterol, although they also have modest effects on lowering triglycerides and raising Heads.
Inflammation: Inflammation is a tissue response that helps the body protect when it is irritated or infected. Tissue can be harmed either mechanically or biologically. After the tissue is harmed, white blood cells release chemicals in the insulted area, causing dilation and increased blood flow to that area.
The classic signs of Inflammation include rub (redness), color (heat), tumor (swelling) and dollar (pain). X-rays and blood tests are ordered to assess for inflammation. Both medications and sissies can induce inflammation.
People with autoimmune diseases have an Increased risk for inflammation. Medications used to treat inflammation are non- steroidal anti-inflammatory pain relievers, Acetaminophen and corticosteroids. Inflammatory cardiopulmonary: Inflammatory cardiopulmonary is a decrease in the function of the myocardium of the heart due to inflammation.
Mild forms are truculently asymptomatic. For more severe cases chest pain is common, along wit arrhythmias, shortness of breath, and fluid retention in legs, ankles, and feet. The cause is often unidentified, however it is associated with viral infections, HIVE/AIDS tenants, bacterial infections, parasites, fungal infections, allergic reactions to medications, and diseases such as lupus and connective tissue disorders.
In order to diagnose inflammatory cardiopulmonary an EGG can be done to detect any abnormal electrical rhythms as well as a weakened heart.
Chest X-rays can be used to analyze the size and shape of a patient’s heart. Mrs. also show the size and shape of the heart and can be used to detect inflammation. Endocrinologist can identify heart enlargement, poor pumping, valve problems, and fluid around the heart.
Cardiac sterilizations can look for signs of inflammation and heart damage. Some cases of inflammatory cardiopulmonary can improve on their own while others may require treatment. ACE inhibitors and ARAB’S can relax the blood vessels of the heart and improve flow. Beta blockers can help control irregular or fast heart rhythms.
Diuretics relieve fluid and sodium retention.
An intra-aortic balloon pump can be inserted in the aorta to increase blood flow and decrease the workload of the heart. Syphilis: Syphilis is the curving of the spine that causes a bowing or rounding. It most commonly occurs in the thoracic spine, though in some cases it can also affect the cervical or lumbar spine. The individual vertebrae that compose a healthy spine resemble squares stacked in a column, syphilis occurs when the vertebrae in the upper back become more wedge-shaped rather than square shaped.
This deformity can be caused by a variety of problems. In particular, when a person has an autoimmune disorder it is essential to be aware of the potential of syphilis.
Specifically, atypical forms of mycobacterium in the immune-compromised population can emerge. For example, acute epigenetic storytelling, which is formed from a bacterium, will first present with fever, malaise, and back pain. Damage usually starts n the vertebral body and spreads via the discs to other levels, resulting in syphilis if not treated in time. However, pathology may not be seen for 10-14 days by an x-ray.
Other than autoimmune related infections, rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune disease, can lead to degeneration of vertebrae resulting in syphilis. People at risk for syphilis include those with autoimmune disorders, spinal trauma, spinal infections, degenerative disorders, osteoporosis, radiation therapy, spinal cancers, and some metabolic disorders.
Treatment for syphilis varies depending on how it Nas developed as well as the progression. There is no specific medication used exclusively for syphilis, though bone-strengthening medications that are used for osteoporosis are often used to prevent further fractures associated with syphilis.
Over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen are the most common pain- reducing and anti-inflammatory drugs used. Prescription medications, including muscle relaxants and stronger analgesics, are also option Multiple sclerosis: Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder diffusely involving degeneration of the CANS myelin and loss of axons. Specifically, MS is a diffuse and progressive CANS disease that affects white and gray matter. It is described as occurring when a previous viral insult to the nervous system NAS occurred in a genetically susceptible individual with a subsequent abnormal immune response in the CANS.
The innate and adaptive immune systems are activated in the pathology of MS. About 0. 1% of the population is affected by MS. Prevalence rates vary with geographic location (higher in temperature regions far above the equator) and in racial groups (highest in whites, although it occurs in all races). The onset is usually between 20 and 40 years of age with a peak of age 30.
Although this disorder does to exhibit a defined inheritance pattern, 15% of those with MS have an affected relative. Studies indicate that early treatment delays disability, presumably by decreasing the injury to the nervous system caused by the disease.
The treatment of MS generally falls into two categories: treatments that address symptom management, and treatments that change the course of the disease by modifying the number and severity of attacks and the progression of disability. Since 1993, the FDA has approved six different products as disease modifying treatments for MS. These Included three interferon-beta products (Betrayers, Avenue, and Rebuff) and three unrelated products (Capstone, Disability, Innovation), both in conjunction with steroid treatments. Anesthesia gravies: Anesthesia gravies is a chronic neuromuscular autoimmune disease.
It can be characterized by skeletal muscle weakness. Usually muscle Meanness increases during periods of activity and improves after periods of rest. Specifically, antibodies block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylene’s at the neuromuscular Junction, preventing the muscle contraction from occurring. Anesthesia gravies can occur at any age, but commonly it affects women under 40 and men over 60.
It is uncommon in children, however futures may acquire immune proteins (antibodies) from a mother affected with anesthesia gravies.
Generally, in these cases the effects disappear 2 to 3 months after birth. Anesthesia gravies can generally be controlled. There are several therapies available to help reduce and improve muscle weakness. Medications used to treat the disorder include interrelatedness agents such as moistening and predominating, which help Improve neuromuscular transmission and increase muscle strength.
Insuppressible drugs such as predispose, cyclotrons, encephalopathy immobile, ND tattooists may also be used. These medications improve muscle strength by suppressing the production of abnormal antibodies.
Monopoly: poliomyelitis (PM): Poliomyelitis is a skeletal muscle disease that effects the “hole body, characterized by chronic muscle inflammation and muscle weakness. Symptoms include difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, problems with voice, muscle pain, difficulty raising arms above head, getting up from a sitting position or climbing stairs. It is considered to be an idiopathic disease meaning that the exact cause is unknown, but it shares many characteristics with autoimmune disorders and individuals with PM show a detectable amount of antibodies in the blood.
PM can occur as a part of other connective tissue diseases, as well as other autoimmune diseases such as Hashish’s thyroids, an autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid gland, and penguins an autoimmune skin disease. People at any age can be affect PM, however it is common in chi Eider 5 to 15 and adult TTS 50 to 70 years to age. Omen are 2 times more likely as men, and it is more common in African Americans than Caucasians. The main treatment for PM is with corticosteroid medications. “hen muscle strength improves, usually in 4 to 6 weeks, the medication is slowly papered off.
Maintenance therapy with predispose may be continued indefinitely. Occupational therapy: Occupational therapy helps individuals participate in the things they want and need to do through the therapeutic use of everyday activities Occupations). It differs from physical therapy in that it focuses more on Addles and using those everyday activities to regain skills. Individuals with autoimmune diseases that involve the Joints and muscles such as rheumatoid arthritis, poliomyelitis, and anesthesia gravies would benefit from occupational therapy.
Specifically, TO can help Hess individuals manage the symptoms they experience in order to live and function to their full ability.
For example, in rheumatoid arthritis TO can be used to prevent further damage and increase the individual’s functionality and Addles. Furthermore, individuals with poliomyelitis experiencing muscle weakness, TO can be used to aid them in Addles such as climbing the stairs, getting out of bed/chairs Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis develops when the process of restoration and bone formation is disrupted, leading to an imbalance in the coupling process.
Seacoasts are differentiated cells that function to reabsorb bone. The seacoasts differentiation thaw is directed by a series of processes that include proliferation, differentiation, fusion, and activation. Hormones, cytokines, and appearing stroll-cell micromanagement interactions control these processes. Thus, the intracellular communication in bones and the key molecular regulators are necessary for bone homeostasis.
Women are at an increase risk compared to men. Furthermore, Increased age, alcoholics, post-menopausal women, previous fracture, and poor nutritional diet are also risk factors for developing osteoporosis.
However, osteoporosis is commonly seen in women, older adults, individuals with inflammatory crosiers and autoimmune disorders. In some cases is can be medication or disease induced. The long-term use of sociolinguistics for various autoimmune diseases can Induce osteoporosis. For example, the use of sociolinguistics for rheumatoid arthritis is known to cause glorification-induced osteoporosis.
In addition, pain and loss of joint function caused by the R. A can result in inactivity, further increasing osteoporosis risks.
Other medications that increase the risk of osteoporosis are heparin, lithium, metamorphose, and cloistering. Appositeness’s are most commonly used for treatment of osteoporosis. Appositeness’s slow the bone breakdown process. Healthy bones are in a state of continuous breakdown and rebuilding.
With the increased risks mentioned above, the breakdown process of the bone accelerates and when bone rebuilding fails to keep pace, bones deteriorate and become weaker. Appositeness’s essentially put a constraint on the process.
These drugs effectively decrease the risk of breaking a bone as a result of osteoporosis. Examples of phosphates are: Alienated (Postman),Resonated (Acetone, Atelier), Abandoner (Boning), and Caledonia acid (Recast, Zoomed). Other medications used re calculation, Duodenum’s, Tripartite, Strontium reinstate, and Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERE).
It is important to not confuse osteoporosis with osteoarthritis, which is characterized as a breakdown of the cartilage that provides a cushion between the bones that meet at the Joint.
This breakdown leads to pain and swelling that occurs when the bones begin to rub against one another. Whereas Osteoporosis, which literally means porous bone, is a disease in which the density and quality of bone are reduced. As bones become more porous and fragile, the risk of fracture is greatly increased. The loss of bone occurs silently and progressively. Referrer osteoporosis is directly related to the bone, while osteoarthritis has to do Ninth the Joints, and the cartilage between the bones.
Pharmacological medications used for osteoarthritis are oral pain medications, pain relieving creams, cortisone pint injections, and hallucinatory acid Joint injections. Specifically, Perpetrator/ Acetaminophen, UNSAID (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) [plus monstrosity, or PIP for patients at increased GIG risk COX-2 inhibitors (cycle-oxygenate-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), Podia analgesics, Hormones, Glutamine leaflet, Condition sulfate, Discern, topical captains, and corticosteroids.
Palliative Care: Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on minimizing the severity of disease symptoms, rather than striving to halt, delay, or reverse progression of the disease itself or provide a cure. The goal of palliative care is to prevent and relieve suffering and to improve the quality of life for patients and families facing serious and complex illnesses.
Palliative care is not dependent on prognosis and is offered in conjunction with curative therapy as well as all other appropriate forms of medical treatments Palliative care focuses on symptoms of the illness and helps the patient gain the strength to carry on with daily life. It improves the patient’s ability to tolerate medical treatments and helps them to have more control over their care by improving communication between health care team members so that the patient can better understand their choices for treatment.
Also known as non-hospice palliative care, this type of care is appropriate for anyone Ninth a serious, complex illness, whether they are expected to recover fully, to live with chronic illness for an extended time, or to experience disease progression. Punctilio’s: Punctilio’s is a broad term referring to inflammation of the subcutaneous fat affecting connective tissue. It is typically found on the shins and calves. The etiology is unknown. To treat punctilio’s it is necessary look to treat the underlying cause, if that is unknown, rest and elevate the inflamed area.
The pain caused by the inflammation is treated with Nasals.
This disease usually develops in adult women. Punctilio’s may be caused by the body’s immune system mistakenly attacking its fat cells (autoimmune). Rhea Case: Vow are interviewing a 62-year-old female. She is 5’4" tall. Over a period of 2-3 weeks, he noticed that she would have difficulty lifting her granddaughter into the air to play.
She thought that maybe the child was Just growing bigger. Today, she noticed that seen could not place dishes on the top shell in near k ticket? seen stated that near arms "would not move. She noticed that when she walked up a flight of stairs [steady for exercise, her hips and thighs did not seem to want to work very well either. Her son has brought her to the clinic. Recent History: Rhea patient states that she has always been mostly healthy. She has a new grandchild and has had no recent cold or virus that she can remember.
The only new medication that she remembers is Attest (commending). She is worried that she may have multiple sclerosis. Her son had placed all her present medications in a bag, Inch she brought with her.
Home Medications: Aspirin (Esoteric) 325 MGM orally daily Commending (Attest) 300 MGM 4 times a day orally Idealized hydrochloride (Carriage) 120 MGM daily orally Ferrous sulfate 1 tab daily orally Labyrinthine sodium (Synchrony) 112 meg daily orally Collateralizes and thermopile (abbreviated TAMP-SMS; trade name: Bacteria) 1 tab every 12 hours for 7 days (2 tabs remaining) Tolerating treated (Detroit) 2 MGM twice a day orally see attached drugs charts Past medical history based on the medication list: patient may experience Joint pain or may have a history of heart problems (aspirin) – patient may experience gastric ulcers or GERI (commending) – patient may have high blood pressure (idealized hydrochloride) – patient may be anemic (ferrous sulfate) – patient may have a thyroid disorder (labyrinthine sodium) – patient may have recently had a OUT (TAMP-SMS [Bacteria]) – patient may experience BOA (tolerating treated [Det[Detroit] should you query her on the Bacteria, and would you consider it a routine home medication? Explain your answer. He patient states that she is allergic to sulfa.
Bacteria is contraindicated for patients Ninth sulfa allergies. Patient’s Allergies: erne patient states that seen is allergic to sultan.
This allergy should be further investigated because the patient is currently taking Collateralizes and thermopile (TAMP-SMS) [Bac[Bacteria] a home medication. Antibiotics containing chemicals called sulfonamides can trigger a reaction if you have a sulfa allergy. Bacteria has components of sulfa, which the patient has stated allergies to.
The contraindications of the drug states: hypersensitivity to any sulfa drug or any component. Signs and symptoms of an adverse reaction to sulfa include: fever, skin rash, redness, swelling of lips face or tongue, blistering, hives, Joint pain, and (rarely) nonphysical. Though, skin reactions are among the most common, ranging from rashes and increased sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitive) to Stevens – Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necropolis.