Horticulture Case Study
Families had very little assets, with a peasant perhaps lucky enough to own a owe and a small portion of land. (Blaine 2000, p 410).
Until approximately 1200 years ago all humans were hunters and gatherers the term hunters and gatherers came from hunting animals and gathering vegetation (Macaroni 2012, p 107). During this period there was never a problem with power or wealth as all the items that would be accumulated were perishable.
Horticulture became the new technology as hand tools were introduced to cultivate plants, the hoe to cultivate soil and the digging stick to poke holes in the ground to plant seeds and grains (Macaroni 2012, p 108). Pastoralist (technology based on the domestication of animals) was introduced; some people combined both Horticulture and Pastoralist allowing them to produce variety of foods creating a more dependable food supply generating more resources than required (Heinlein 2011, Pl 38). Less people were required to produce food allowing them to engage in a new division of labor (Heinlein 2011, IPPP).
People began to make tools, Jewelry and weapons developing a surplus of objects stimulating trade and setting the stage for inequality (Heinlein 2011, p 138). Battles evolved between groups and families as some had accumulated more goods of value than others, creating a variety of valuables for them to war over (Heinlein 2011, Pl 38). Individuals passed their possessions on to descendants, wealth and power began to grow making some individuals more dominant (Heinlein, 2011, p 138). The plough was Invented the use of animals to pull the plough was very efficient (Macaroni 2012, p 112).
Plunging aerated the soil making it more fertile and productive (Macaroni 2012, 112). Increased productivity allowed for more specialist trades (Macaroni 2012, p 12).
Tasks such as securing the food and clearing land became occupations Nations 2012, p 112). The invention of money had made bartering obsolete having an economic effect on city centers increasing the population (Macaroni 2012, p 112). This society became known as the Agricultural society (Heinlein 2011, p 139). Omen’s roles were affected during this period as the men took control of plunging, metal work and the livestock (Heinlein 2011, p 139).
The women were given all the subsidiary tasks of carrying the water to the fields and weeding (Heinlein 2011, p 139).
The role of the male species was now more dominant (Heinlein 2011, p 139). By 1800 the amount of people owning small portions of land had grown by Millions, many Europeans had moved into the hills in France and Tuscany, they had built themselves simple homes (Blaine 2000, p 418). Large areas of land were set aside for natural fibers to grow including flax and hemp this was to play a large part in this era allowing linen sheets, clothing and ship sails to be produced (Blaine 2000, p 418).
Land was required to feed the sheep for the supply of wool and other livestock for theater (Blaine 2000, p 4 Importation to Cotton calico trot India and wool trot Australia and New Zealand to Britain helped develop Rupee’s population, freeing up more land for the cultivation of food (Blaine 2000, IPPP). Clothes were made at home handed down or even inherited from the deceased (Blaine 2000, p 420). Homes Nerve simple throughout Asia, Africa and Europe and often referred to as slums Elaine 2000, p 422).
Mattresses were made of straw, houses were cold and it was common for a family to sleep together on a homemade mattress (Blaine 2000, p 422). The Industrial revolution began when the steam engine was used to power machinery allowing goods to now be produced by machines (Heinlein 2011, p 140). Rhea first users of the steam engine became wealthy and began dictating workers conditions (Heinlein 2011, p 140). People became homeless as they were thrown off land with little choice but to move to the cities to find work (Heinlein 2011, p 140). Maine elaborates the importance of harvesting food sources from grains to animals and how daily life revolved around the production of food (2000, p 410). Blaine also explains the development of natural fibers to produce items of clothing and linen, sails for ships and how the importation of cotton ,calico and wool would play a large role in developing Europe( 2000, p 420).
Blaine explains housing was of a very low standard simple and slum like conditions with homemade mattresses being made from straw (2000, p 422). Macaroni confirms the practice of hunters and gatherers and the emergence of the horticultural society (2012, p 107).
Heinlein explains how pastoralist increased the advancement of new trades leading to inequality and the ale dominance (2011, p 138). The reduction in women’s roles and the power and struggle of wealth, the introduction of the steam engine ,the demise of human labor forcing more people to move to cities to find work is described by Heinlein (2011, up 139,140) . As I reflect on how life has changed since 1800, the significant changes to me are Housing and food most people today live in moderate homes with the luxury of running water gas and electricity compared to the slum like housing or simple homes described by Blaine (2002, IPPP).
Food today is something that we tend to sake for granted it is readily available and often wasted. In the era of 1500-1800 it Nas hard to come by having to be self-hunted or gathered, there are many more ‘rarities of food today. In conclusion life has changed since 1800 1 believe society has Changed for the better we continue to develop from hunters and gatherers allowing larger variety of food, trade imports and exports have grown, technology continues to advance in many areas that were not considered in 1800. Production and living conditions including housing are of a much higher standard.