Chapter 10 Study Guide Apush
Describe the financial situation of the United States in 1791. •The revenue had declined and the public debt was huge. •The American people were brashly (*hastily, rash) at temping to erect a republic on an immense scale. 2. 2. Characterize the American population at the time of the ratification of the Constitution.
•The American population was doubling about every twenty-five years and the first census in 1790 recorded about 4 million people. •The population was still 90 percent rural though even though the cities were doing very well and growing.
About five percent of the population lived east of the Appalachian Mountains 3. 3. When was Vermont admitted to the Union? • Vermont become the 14th state in 1791.
4. 4. Who did the Electoral College elect first president of the United States in 1789? •George Washington was unanimously drafted the first president by the Electoral College in 1789. 5. 5. Philadelphia was the first capital of the new nation.
What was the second? •New York was the temporary capital. 6. 6. Name the members of Washington’s cabinet and the positions they held. •The secretary of state was Thomas Jefferson. Secretary of the Treasury was Alexander Hamilton.
•The Secretary of War was Henry Knox. Attorney General Edmund Randolf 7. 7. Who wrote the bill of Rights? When were they adopted by the states? •The Bill of rights was adopted in 1791 and was drafted by James Madison. 8.
8. Read the Bill of Rights. 9. 9. How was the judicial branch organized under the Judiciary Act of 1789? •The branch had a chief justice and five associates.
It also had federal district and circuit courts and established the office of attorney general. 10. 10 Who was the first Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court? John Jay was the first supreme court Justice. 11.
11. Explain Hamilton’s financial plan •His plan was to shape the fiscal policies of the administration in a way to favor the wealthier groups. •By doing the above, the wealthy would lend the government monetary and political support. •Hamilton also planned to pay back the nations debt at face value, meaning everything they owed plus accumulated interest (a total of more than 54 million dollars) 12. 12.
How did Hamilton get his way in Congress? •Hamilton persuaded Jefferson to line up enough votes in Congress for assumption.
In return Virginia would have the federal district on the Potomac. 13. 13. Why did Hamilton see the national debt as a “national blessing? ” •He believed it to be a national blessing because it was a kind of union adhesive. The more people the government owed money to, the more people there would be with a personal state in the success of Hamilton’s ideas.
•He made a debt an asset for vitalizing the financial system as well as the government itself. 14. 14. How did Hamilton plan to raise the money to pay off the national debt? •Hamilton’s first plan was custom duties (imposing taxes on imports) which ould be derived from a tariff. •Revenues from tariff’s required a heavy foreign trade which was another major part of Hamilton’s strategy.
15. 15. What was Hamilton’s vision for a national bank? •Hamilton wanted a national bank that was a powerful institution and would hold the federal treasuries money. •By having a national bank, federal funds would stimulate business by remaining in circulation •The bank would also print paper money and provide a sound and stable national currency. 16. 16.
Why did Jefferson argue against the national bank? Jefferson argued that such financial power should be left to the states. He argued that the states, not Congress, had the power to charter banks. “Whatever the constitution does not permit, it forbids” 17. 17. How did Hamilton answer Jefferson’s recommendations to Washington? •Hamilton used the example in the constitution which gave congress the power to pass any laws which seemed proper or necessary.
He argued since the government was empowered to collect taxes and regulate trade, a national bank would be both proper and necessary to help perform these basically functions. HAMILTONS PLAN Pay off states debt – Tariffs – Exsize tax – Sell bonds – Create a national bank 18. The Whiskey Rebellion in Pennsylvania in 1794 was lead by distillers who strongly opposed the 1791 excise tax on whiskey. 19. The rebellion was ended when President Washington sent in federal troops.
Although the troops faced no opposition, a strong message was sent by the government stating that it would enforce the law. 20. N/A 21. Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans wanted to get into the French and British War to fight for France. 22.
Washington did not want to enter the French and British War 23.
Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 stating the country’s neutrality from the Britain-France war. He was backed by Hamilton 24. 25. For years, the British had retained the frontier posts on U.
S. soil, all in defiance of the peace treaty of 1783. 26. 27. The London government did not want to abandon the valuable fur trade in the Great Lakes region, and British agents openly sold firearms to the Miami Confederacy, an alliance of 8 Indian nations who terrorized Americans. 18.
Why did distillers in Pennsylvania rebel in 1794? •Hamilton’s high excise tax weighted heavily on the homespun pioneer folk in the south. They thought of it as a tax on a grat luxury but as a burden on an economic necessity and a medium of exchange. 2. `9. Why was Washington’s action regarding the whiskey rebellion significant? •It was significant because Washington brought to gather a group of militia to crush a rebellion in another state. Most people didn’t think they would have the guts to attack another state.
•Washington’s government commanded a new respect after the rebellion. 3. Understand the differences between the federalists and democratic-Republicans. •Federelalists: Ruled by the “best people” and wanted a powerful central government.
They had a loose interpretation of the Constitution.
•Democratic-Republican: Wanted a weak central government but power within the states. They had a strict interpretation of the Constitution. 4. What was the Democratic-Republican position on the French Revolution? •They thought that if a few thousand aristocratic people had to die for freedom then it was a fair price to pay. 5.
What was Washington’s position on the war in Europe? •Washington, who was backed by Hamilton, believed that war should be avoided at all costs if it can be. 6. What was the Neutrality proclamation and how did the Jeffersonian react to it? This document proclaimed the government’s official neutrality in the conflict in Europe •It also sternly warned American citizens to be impartial toward both armed camps. •The Jeffersonians were enraged by the neutrality proclamation and they were also angry towards how he presented the proclamation, how he didn’t even conult Congress. 7.
Who is Citizen Genet? •He is a 30 year old Representative of the French Republic. •He took advantage of the new French American alliance and undertook to fit out privateers. 8. How did Great Britain violate the Peace of Paris of 1783? They have been holding the chain of northern frontier posts on U. S soil for ten years.
26. Who was Mad Anthony Wayne? What were the terms of the Treaty of Grenville? •Mad Anthony Wayne was an army general. •The treaty of Grenville was signed in August 1795. •The confederacy gave up vast tracts of the Old Northwest and in exchange the Indians received a lump-sum payment of $20,000 and an annual annuity of $9,000. Also the rights to hunt in any lands they wanted and recognition of their sovereignty. 27.
What action did the British take against American ships in the Caribbean? The British ships attacked the French West Indies and seized about three hundred American merchant ships in the West Indies. 28. Explain the terms of Jay’s Treaty and the Jeffersonian’s reaction to it. •The British agreed to evacuate their posts in the U. S and also to pay for the damages caused in the recent seizures of American ships.
The British didn’t speak of any future attacks however. •The Jeffersonian’s were filled with rage because the treaty seemed like an abject surrender to Britain. 29. What was Pinckney’s Treaty? •This treated with Spain gave the U.
S basically everything they wanted including navigation throughout the Mississippi and the large disputed territory of north Florida. 13.
What did Washington warn of in his farewell address? •Washington strongly suggested staying away from permanent alliances such as the Franco-American alliance. •Washington did not oppose alliances but simply believed temporary alliances were best. 14. Who ran for President in 1796? What was the result of the election? •John Adams and Thomas Jefferson ran for President. •John Adams won the election by a small margin and therefore Jefferson became vice president since he was runner up.
5. Explain the XYZ affair •This was a political and diplomatic episode where Adams’s envoys were approached secretly by here go-betweens. 16. How did the United States prepare for war with France? •They worked very fast, creating a navy department and expanding the three-ship navy. •The Marine Corps was reestablished and a new army of ten thousand men was authorized.
17. What was the Convention of 1800? •A treaty was signed in Paris where France agreed to annul the twenty-two-year-old marriage of convenience but the United States agreed to pay the damage claims of American shippers. 8. Explain the Alien and Sedition Acts. •The Sedition act basically took away freedom of speech and press from citizens. The law provided that anyone who impeded the policies of the government or falsely defamed its officials such as the president was to be fined and imprisoned.
•The Alien acts consists of the federalist Congress created a disheartening barrier for the “dregs” wanting to come in from Europe. Also one of the laws hit hard on immigrants, it allowed the president to deport dangerous foreigners in time of peace and to deport or imprison them in times of hostility.