Chapter 15 Study Guide Questions

CHAPTER 15: THE FERMENT OF REFORM AND CULTURE Reviving Religion Know: Alexis de Tocqueville, The Age of Reason, Deism, Unitarians, Second Great Awakening, Camp Meetings, Charles Grandison Finney 43. In what ways did religion in the United States become more liberal and more conservative in the early decades of the 19th century? Denominational Diversity Know: Burned-Over-District, Millerites (Adventists) 44. What effect did the Second Great Awakening have on organized religion? A Desert Zion in Utah Know: Joseph Smith, Book of Mormon, Brigham Young 5.

What characteristics of the Mormons caused them to be persecuted by their neighbors? Free Schools for a Free People Know: Three R’s, Horace Mann, Noah Webster, McGuffey’s Readers 46. What advances were made in the field of education from 1820 to 1850? Higher Goals for Higher Learning Know: University of Virginia, Oberlin College, Mary Lyon, Lyceum, Magazines 47. In what ways did higher education become more modern in the antebellum years? An Age of Reform Know: Sylvester Graham, Penitentiaries, Dorthea Dix 48.

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How and why did Dorthea Dix participate in the reform movements? Demon Rum–The “Old Deluder” Know: American Temperance Society, Neil S. Dow, Maine Law of 1851 49.

Assess the successfulness of the temperance reformers. Women in Revolt Know: Spinsters, Alexis de Tocqueville, Cult of Domesticity, Catherine Beecher, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Blackwell, Margaret Fuller, Sarah and Angelina Grimke, Amelia Bloomer, Seneca Falls, Declaration of Sentiments 50. Describe the status of women in the first half of the 19th century.

Wilderness Utopias Know: Utopias, New Harmony, Brook Farm, Oneida Community, Complex Marriage, Shakers 51.

In what ways were utopian communities different from mainstream America? The Dawn of Scientific Achievement Know: Benjamin Silliman, John J. Audubon 52. Was the United States a leader in the world in scientific pursuits? Explain. Makers of America: The Oneida Community Know: John Humphrey Noyes, Bible Communism, Mutual Criticism 53. The word “utopia” is a word that is “derived from Greek that slyly combines the meanings of `a good place’ and `no such place’.

Does the Oneida Community fit this definition? Explain. Artistic Achievements Know: Thomas Jefferson, Gilbert Stuart, Charles Wilson Peale, John Trumball, Hudson River School, Daguerreotype, Stephen C. Foster 54. “The antebellum period was a time in which American art began to come of age. ” Assess. The Blossoming of a National Literature Know: Knickerbocker Group, Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, William Cullen Bryant 55.

In the early 1800’s American writers emerged, who were recognized world-wide for their ability. What made them uniquely American?

Trumpeters of Transcendentalism Know: Transcendentalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Walden: Or Life in the Woods, On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, Walt Whitman 56. Which of the transcendentalists mentioned here best illustrated the theory in his life and writings? Explain. Glowing Literary Lights Know: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Louisa May Alcott, Emily Dickinson 57. Name six important American writers and explain the significance of each.

Literary Individualists and Dissenters

Know: Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville 58. Why do you think Poe and Melville were not appreciated as much in America at the time as they were in other times and places? Portrayers of the Past Know: George Bancroft, William H. Prescott, Francis Parkman 59. How did the geographic background of early historians affect the history they wrote? Varying Viewpoints: Reform: Who? What? How? and Why? 60. Were 19th century reformers compassionate, religious people; fanatics who didn’t care if their actions had negative results; or conservatives who wanted to control the lower classes? Explain.