Developing a Research Proposal
Problem Definition The article “The Changing Face of Poverty in Canada” published on 21 March 2012 in The Globe and Mail Newspaper would be utilized for this paper. Poverty in Canada is the key issue that would require future primary research as highlighted in the article. The article highlights the view that the level of poverty has been on the increase within the Canadian population hence raising many concerns among most people.
The topic of poverty in Canada is important and effective for future research because of the understanding that the level of poverty has been escalating over the years at a faster rate. It is worth noting that Canada has continued to experience increasing levels of poverty over the years despite the introduction of economic measures to help alleviate this undesirable phenomenon. Grant (2012) asserts that the number of people living in poverty in the country has also been growing and is estimated to be at 16% of the total population. The fast rate at which poverty is spreading in Canada brings out this trend as an important topic for future research, especially that the relevant authorities ponder on the vital measures that could help eliminate this soaring trend in order to improve the quality of life among Canadians. Additionally, the topic of poverty in Canada is important and vital for future research because of the increasing levels of inequalities in the country.
It is asserted that the level of incomes among different individuals within the country differ significantly; some take away huge chunks of money while leaving the rest of the population with almost nothing. Most individuals have continued to earn low incomes hence widening the class difference in Canada, which translates directly to increased levels of poverty in the country. In line with the topic of poverty in Canada, the research question would investigate what is the degree of poverty in Canada? Literature Review It is vital to note that various studies have already been conducted on the topic of poverty in Canada, and researchers have settled on different stands concerning the entire issue. This part explicates some of the significant studies that have been conducted on the topic of poverty in Canada. Reuter et al.
(2006) conducted a research on the public attributions for poverty in Canada. The research was conducted through telephone interviews on a random sample of adults from Edmonton and Toronto. Most members of the public were of the view that poverty in Canada emanates from the high levels of income inequalities among individuals and not from personal factors. This implies that the causes of poverty in Canada are external and cannot be easily controlled by individuals. Additionally, the respondents used in the research attributed the rising levels of poverty to the continued marginalization of lower class individuals. Drawing from this research, it can be noted that the degree of poverty has been on the rise because of the inequalities in terms of incomes.
This research is effective as it highlights the statistics relating to poverty projecting the number to be 14% of the total population. This helps in easier explanation of the research question. However, Reuter’s research is ineffective because it does not indicate the literacy levels among individuals that could have contributed to income differentials and subsequent poverty increases. According to the research conducted by Crossley (2006), poverty is widely spread among children living with single mothers. This implies that these children find it difficult to access quality education and health care within the country. The high level of poverty among children in Canada has been instrumental in contributing t the vicious cycle of poverty in the country.
Notably, the research by Crossly is effective in exemplifying the origin and development of poverty in Canada. With the understanding of the origin of poverty and its vicious nature, one can understand the extent to which poverty is spread within the country. It brings out the view that poverty, in most instances, is transferred from one generation to another through the vicious cycle hence results in immense suffering. However, the research relied more on the assumption that poverty, in most instances, would be transferred, thus ignoring the view that the trend is not always the same for most families. Hay (2009) also conducted a research on the policies of poverty reduction in Canada. According to Hay, the high levels of poverty in Canada have always raised enormous debates with most individuals calling on the government to take care of its citizens.
Activists for equality have urged the government and other well-wishers to put in place effective policies that would help address poverty in Canada. Notably, the government tries to respond to the growing concerns by engaging in job creation and the development of better systems to ensure that poor individuals are carefully supported. Poverty has been on the increase necessitating the adoption of effective measures, such as government spending on welfare programs and job creation strategies. The research by Hay is vital because it indicates the view that the degree of poverty in Canada is undesirable and needs to be addressed as fast as possible. This supports the research question on the degree of poverty in Canada.
The study is limited by the view that it concentrates more on the policies that need to be embraced whereas leaving out the explanation of the high numbers of individuals living in deplorable conditions, in Canada. Another study conducted by Raphael (2002) focused on the relationship between poverty, inequality, and health in Canada. According to Raphael, poverty in Canada is brought about by the existing income inequalities among individuals. The wealthy class has continued to earn more incomes while poor individuals continue suffering due to the growing class differences. Again, the extreme levels of poverty among individuals have limited their accessibility to better health care because of the lack of funds to pay for such expensive healthcare.
Raphael’s research is closely related to the research question on the extent of poverty in Canada. The research explicates the growing levels of inequalities and the expanding level of poverty among individuals hence providing an understanding on the degree of poverty in Canada. More so, the research explains that the high levels of poverty have affected the access to quality healthcare indicating the view that poverty is at extreme levels in the country. However, the research could have been more effective in cases where it could have pointed out other key causes of poverty instead of placing the focus on income inequalities alone.Townson (2005) in her research investigating the level of poverty in Canada found out that more women tend to be more affected by poverty as compared to men.
Women are more affected by the high levels of poverty as most of them do not get access to quality education and jobs existing within the country. This is limited by the high levels of gender discrimination that characterize most parts of the globe. The study also revealed the view that most single mothers were more affected by poverty as they had to take care of their children single-handedly. The research by Townson represents the population that is hard-hit by poverty in Canada. The overall degree of poverty in the country can be drawn from these findings. The study is limited by the focus on women alone instead of focusing on the entire population.
Research Design, Research Method and Sample Selection Due to thhe nature of the problem, I will consider using a cross-sectional design, which is the ideal plan with respect to the time dimension. As dictated from the study, I shall carry out the research once, which will represent a snapshot of one point during this fiscal year or so. I believe that the opted research design is viable in the context of funds availed for the research and will result in a truly representative sample. Besides, the design is presumed that it will result in a small sampling error and hence it will help to deliver an accurate, reliable and valid data. The method that I have chosen to use in my study for the extraction of data from the field is through interviews. This method is appropriate and reliable because of the first-hand information as well as an in-depth data.
In addition, interviews are more flexible because I will easily adapt to the situation and get as much of the relevant information as possible. This research method will enable me to clarify and elaborate the purpose of the research, effectively convince the respondents about the importance of the research, and hence, collect reliable and accurate data. The research method is designed in a manner that the findings of the study will be applied to a large population size. As much as I consider the accuracy and reliability of the study to be conceived of this research method, there are minor limitations that might hamper the reliability of the method. Strengths The method provides an in-depth data for analysis and can be relied upon for decision-making because it yields high response rates and expounds the benefits from sensitive and personal data, which can be easily extracted from the respondents. Flexibility can also be applied to get the desired responses from the respondents.
Limitations Despite the pros, there are shortcomings that may be associated with the method. It may be costly and time consuming to cater for the travelling expenses because interviewers may need to be trained, in a bid to eliminate incidences of prejudice. Besides, the method may not be appropriate in the case where the sample size involved is significantly large.A number of 30 households will be involved in the research whereby the probability sampling method will be utilized. Simple random sampling method will be used to select the respondents who will be considered for questioning.
Since the method is easy to use with computerized voice response system and reaches the target population, the sampling method will reduce the travelling costs. I will use phone calls to reach my target population of about 30 respondents to conduct my survey. This method is considered appropriate because it is convenient and saves time. Besides, the method will reach many people within a short period. Accordingly, the method is relatively cheaper as no funds will be availed for travelling. Therefore, incidences of the budget constraint are almost negligible.
Advantages This method requires minimal costs compared to other methods of collecting data from the field. It also covers a large geographical area within a short time and accesses easily the hard-to-reach respondents. Besides, the method reduces interview bias as well as the completion time. Disadvantages The response rate is low, and interview size sample is limited due to the high costs if the interview is to cover geographically dispersed sample. Additionally, many phone numbers are unlisted or may not be valid, thus making directory listings unreliable.
Consequently, the research might not deliver the purported results due to unavailability of the targeted persons.