Growth Strategy of Incheon International Airport
Incheon International Airport is located west of Incheon’s city center, on an artificially created piece of land between Yeongjong and Yongyu islands.
The two islands were originally separated by shallow sea. That area between the two islands was reclaimed for the construction project, effectively connecting the once separate Yeongjong and Yongyu islands. The reclaimed area as well as the two islands are all part of Jung-gu, an administrative district of Incheon.It is connected to the mainland by Incheon International Airport Expressway (Expressway 130), a part of which is Yeongjong Bridge. The expressway also connects Gimpo International Airport to provide connections between domestic flight service with international air traffic, an advantage that makes it much easier to travel from southern Korean regions to Incheon, and then to airports all over the globe.
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Incheon Bridge serves as the second path to the southern part of Incheon city from october of 2009.The airport is served by frequent bus service from all parts of South Korea as well as by traditional ferry service between Yeongjong pier and Incheon. Airport limousines operate around the clock from Seoul to Incheon, and several backup highway buses escort people from places within and outside Seoul. The Incheon International Airport Railroad connects Incheon International Airport to Gimpo International Airport and Seoul Subway Line 5 and Line 9 which opened 23 March 2007. 6] A further extension in December 2010 connects the airport to Line 2, Line 4, and Line 6.
The airport was awarded the Best in Service Award in Class at the 1st International Conference on Airport Quality and Service by the IATA and the Airports Council International (ACI), and ranked second in Best Airport Worldwide, behind Hong Kong International Airport. It was also ranked No. in the world by the (ACI).  Seoul Incheon International Airport’s terminal has 74 boarding gates altogether, with 44 in the main terminal and 30 in Concourse A.  HistoryLocation of Incheon International Airport on reclaimed land joining Yeongjong and Yongyu IslandsAfter the Seoul Olympics of 1988, international air traffic to Korea increased. In the 1990s, it became apparent that Gimpo International Airport could not cope with the increase in air traffic.
 To reduce the load on Gimpo International Airport, construction of the Incheon airport began in November 1992. It was constructed on reclaimed land between Yeongjong Island and Youngyu Island, and took eight years to construct, with an additional six months to test.The airport was officially opened in March 2001. Initially there were numerous problems, mostly involving baggage handling.  which required the system to be operated semi-automatically. Most of the problems were fixed within a month, and the airport began to operate normally.
After the 11 September 2001 attacks in the U. S. , and because of regional disease epidemics in Korea and China, the airport’s security and medical inspection equipment were upgraded. Air traffic increased markedly and by early 2002 it became apparent that the airport would be saturated by 2006. As a result in February 2002, the construction of the second phase was initiated.
Originally the construction was supposed to have ended by December 2008. Due to the Beijing Olympics in 2008, however, the construction schedule was modified to allow the construction to end by July 2008. On 15 November 2006 the Airbus A380 landed at the airport as part of the first leg of its certification trip.Tests on the runways, taxi-ways and ramps showed that the airport could handle the aircraft. To further upgrade service Incheon and major Korean logistics firm Hanjin Corporation (parent company of the Korean Flag Carrier, Korean Air) agreed on 10 January 2008 to build a nine-story hospital near the airport.
Once construction is complete in 2011, the Yeongjong Medical Centre is expected to serve nearby residents and some of Korea’s annual 30,000 medical tourists.   Timeline This section does not cite any references or sources.Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2009) February 1992: Master plan approved November 1992: Phase I construction and site preparation initiated July 1994: North and south dikes completed March 1996: Formally named Incheon International Airport May 1996: Passenger terminal construction Initiated December 1996: Runway construction initiated 30 June 2000: Construction of basic components completed July 2000: Test operations begin November 2000: Opening date announced 9 March 2001: Airport officially opened February 2002: Phase II construction started November 2002: New passenger airline parking stands constructed (Phase 2) October 2003: Construction of new cargo terminal initiated (Phase 2) November 2003: Intra Airport Transit (IAT) system construction initiated (Phase 2) December 2003: Third runway construction initiated (Phase 2) June 2004: Passenger concourse construction initiated (Phase 2) April 2005: Final construction of passenger concourse (Phase 2) March 2007: Airport railroad started operationJune 2008: Phase II construction completed  Construction stages New satellite building under constructionThe airport was originally planned to be built in three phases, incrementally increasing airport capacity as the demand grew.
This was changed, however, to four phases after the airport was opened.  Phase 1In Phase 1, the airport had a capacity of 30 million passengers per year, and a cargo capacity of 1. 7 million metric tonnes yearly. In this phase, a passenger terminal with a floor space of 496,000 square metres 5,340,000 sq ft), two parallel runways, a control tower, an administrative building, a transportation centre (the Integrated Transportation Centre, designed by Terry Farrell & Partners), and integrated operations centre, three cargo terminals, international business centre, and a government office building were constructed.  Phase 2Phase 2 construction began in 2002 and was originally expected to be completed in December 2008. However, in an attempt to have the airport ready for the 2008 Beijing Olympics which took place in August 2008, the schedule was modified and Phase 2 construction was completed on 20 June 2008.
During this construction phase, a third parallel 4,000 metres (13,000 ft)-long runway and a 13-hectare cargo terminal area were added. A 16. 5 hectare concourse connected to the main passenger building via two parallel 870 metres (2,850 ft) long underground passageways was added, with a “Shuttle train” Mitsubishi Crystal Mover APM shuttling passengers between the concourse and the main terminal.  With the completion, the airport has an annual capacity of 410,000 flights, 44,000,000 passengers, and nearly 4,500,000 metric tonnes of cargo.Many long distance foreign carriers where moved to the new concourse, with Korean and Asiana continuing to use the existing terminal.
In addition, there were numerous equipment upgrades during the phase, including the newer and better ASDE-X with MRI (Multi Radar Tracking) function, and the ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) system with the RIMCAS (Runway Incursion Monitoring and Conflict Alert System) function. The installation of four additional sets of ASDE-X antennas is planned to reduce blind spots during heavy rainfall and in preparation for the new runway. edit] Phase 3Plans to invest ? 4 trillion by 2017 to expand Incheon International Airport. The South Korean government plans to add a second passenger terminal in the northern field of the airport and expand its existing cargo terminal and other infrastructure. The terminals will be connected with each other by the underground “Starline” train, which currently links the first terminal and the concourse.
Upon completion, Incheon International Airport will be able to handle 62 million passengers and 5. 8 million tonnes of cargo a year, up from the current capacity of 44 million passengers and 4. million tonnes. Construction began in 2011 with completion targeted for 2017. Plans for Incheon’s expansion also include adding more aprons to park planes and extending a railway line to the city centre of Seoul about 70 kilometres away from the airport.
  Phase 4Estimated to be completed in 2020 this is the final and the ultimate construction stage. Upon completion, the airport will have two passenger terminals, four satellite concourses, 128 gates, and five parallel runways (one exclusively for cargo flights).It will be able to handle 100 million passengers and 7 million metric tonnes of cargo annually, with further possible expansions. The airport is projected to be transformed into one of the top ten busiest in the world by 2020.  Operation facilities and infrastructure This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2009)  Control towerIncheon Airport – Traffic CentreLocated at the center of the airport, the 22 story Control Tower is 100. 4 meters tall and is illuminated 24 hours a day. On its highest floor is located a parabolic antenna that is used by the Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE) to detect all airplanes and obstacles within 5 km of the tower.
The upper floors are used by ground and tower controllers while the lower floors are mostly for support operations. The control tower has a total area of 179 square meters making it the 3rd largest in the world as of 2001.Orient Thai Airlines at Incheon RunwaysThere are three parallel paved asphalt runways in operation, 15R/33L, 15L/33R and 16/34. Runway 15R/33L and 15L/33R are each 3,750 meters long, 60 meters wide, and 1. 05 meters thick. Runway 16/34 is 4000 meters long.
Runway 15R/33L is used mostly for departures while runway 15L/33R is used mostly for arrivals. This is evident from the amount of rubber present on each runway; runway 15L/33R has more rubber on it due to the higher number of landings. A third parallel 16L/34R runway 4,000 meters long began operation in June 2008.Landing and takeoffs of most passenger flights are done on the new runway and the existing runway 15R/33L while runway 15L/33R is mostly used for cargo flights for its proximity with the cargo terminals. Although the runways are labelled 33 and 34, all three runways have the same heading. Once Phase 4 construction is complete, the airport will have 4 parallel runways, two of them 3,750 meters long and the other two 4,000 meters long.
All runways are equipped with ILS CAT IIIb at both sides allowing for operation in visibility conditions as low as 50 meters.As of the date of upgrade, Incheon International Airport was the only airport in Asia to have full ILS CAT IIIb capability. The runway lightings at Incheon International Airport (as well as the taxi lights) are tied into special computers at the control tower. Air Traffic Controllers can provide progressive taxiing to an aircraft by setting the computer to manipulate the taxi and runway lights so that it will lead them to their designated gate or parking stand.  Terminals, airlines and destinations Main TerminalArrivals Arrivals Airside Gate AreaThe main passenger terminal (measuring 496,000 square metres) is the largest airport terminal in area in South Korea, and the ninth largest passenger terminal in the world, after Dubai International Airport’s Terminal 3, Beijing Capital International Airport’s Terminal 3, Hong Kong International Airport’s Terminal 1, Bangkok Suvarnabhumi Airport’s passenger terminal, Mexico City International Airport Terminal 1, Barcelona Airport Terminal 1, and Indira Gandhi International Airport Terminal 3.
The passenger terminal was designed by Curtis W.Fentress, FAIA, RIBA of Fentress Architects. It is 1060 metres long, 149 meters wide, and 33 metres high. Its construction cost was 1. 3816 trillion South Korean Won.  The terminal has 44 boarding ports (all of which can accommodate the new Airbus 380), 50 customs inspection ports, 2 biological quarantine counters, 6 stationary and 14 portable passenger quarantine counters, 120 arrival passport inspection counters, 8 arrival security ports, 28 departure security ports, 252 check in counters, and 120 departure passport inspection ounters.
 Concourse A A trio of different Asiana Airlines aircraft with a Korean Air aeroplane in the backgroundThe passenger concourse A was completed at the end of May 2008 and all foreign airlines use this terminal since 10 June 2008. It is connected to the Main Terminal by two parallel 870-metre (2,850 ft) long underground passageways equipped with IATs (Intra Airport Transit). It has 30 gates and five lounges (Asiana Airlines/Star Alliance, Korean Air/SkyTeam, Cathay Pacific/Oneworld, Japan Airlines/Oneworld, China Eastern Airlines/SkyTeam. edit] Airlines and destinationsThere are currently over 70 airlines serving ICN. The largest carrier in terms of passenger numbers is Korean Air, followed by Asiana Airlines.
Although all domestic flights depart from the main terminal, international gates are separated from the domestic gates. Passengers should note that even though non-Korean (foreign) carriers started operating from concourse A on 10 June 2008, all check-in and immigration procedures still take place in the main passenger terminal.Incheon has more Chinese destinations than Hong Kong International Airport and has more Japanese destinations than Narita International Airport.  Airlines Destinations Terminal Aeroflot Moscow-Sheremetyevo A Air Astana Almaty A Aircalin Noumea-La Tontouta A Air Canada Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver A Air China Beijing-Capital, Chengdu, Hefei, Hangzhou, Qingdao, Tianjin, Yanji A Air France Paris-Charles de Gaulle A Air India Delhi, Hong Kong A Air Macau Macau A Airasia X Kuala Lumpur A Aircalin Noumea AAll Nippon Airways Nagoya-Centrair, Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Narita A Asiana Airlines Almaty, Asahikawa, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing-Capital, Busan, Cebu, Changchun, Changsha, Chengdu, Chicago-O’Hare, Chongqing [resumes 14 December], Clark, Dalian, Delhi, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Guangzhou, Guilin, Hangzhou, Hanoi, Harbin, Hiroshima, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Huangshan, Ibaraki, Istanbul-Ataturk, Jeju, Khabarovsk, Koror, Kota Kinabalu, Kumamoto, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Manila, Matsuyama, Miyazaki, Nagoya-Centrair, Naha, Nanchang, Nanjing, New York-JFK, Okinawa, Osaka-Kansai, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Qingdao, Saipan, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Sendai, Shanghai-Pudong, Shenzhen, Shizuoka, Siem Reap, Singapore, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Takamatsu, Tashkent, Tianjin, Tokyo-Haneda, Tokyo-Narita, Toyama, Weihai, Xi’an, Yanji, Yantai, Yonago, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Charter: Haikou, Honolulu [regular service restarts 8 December] Johor Bahru Main Business Air Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Phuket A Cathay Pacific Hong Kong, Taipei-Taoyuan A Cebu Pacific Cebu, Manila A China Airlines Taipei-Taoyuan AChina Eastern Airlines Changsha, Kunming, Nanjing, Qingdao, Shanghai-Pudong, Weihai, Yancheng, Yantai A China Southern Airlines Beijing-Capital, Changchun, Changsha, Dalian, Guangzhou, Harbin, Mudanjiang, Shanghai-Pudong, Shenyang, Yanji A Crystal Thai Airlines Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi A Delta Air Lines Detroit, Tokyo-Narita A Eastar Jet Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Kota Kinabalu, Sapporo-Chitose, Tokyo-Narita, Zhangjiajie Main & A Emirates Dubai A Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi A EVA Air Taipei-Taoyuan A Finnair Helsinki A Garuda Indonesia Denpasar/Bali, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta A Hawaiian Airlines Honolulu A Japan Airlines Tokyo-Narita A Jeju Air Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Hong Kong, Kitakyushu, Manila, Osaka-Kansai Main & A Jin Air Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Cebu, Clark, Guam, Hong Kong, Macau, Sapporo-Chitose, Vientiane [begins 21 December] Main & A KLM Amsterdam AKorean Air Akita, Amsterdam, Aomori, Atlanta, Auckland, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing-Capital, Brisbane, Busan, Cairo, Cebu, Changsha, Chiang Mai, Chicago-O’Hare, Daegu, Dalian, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denpasar/Bali, Dubai, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Guam, Guangzhou, Hakodate, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Honolulu, Huangshan, Irkutsk, Istanbul-Ataturk, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Jinan, Kagoshima, Kathmandu, Komatsu, Kota Kinabalu, Koror [begins 1 December], Kuala Lumpur, Kunming, Las Vegas, London-Gatwick [begins 28 April 2012], London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Madrid, Manila, Melbourne, Milan-Malpensa, Moscow-Sheremetyevo, Mumbai, Nadi, Nagasaki, Nagoya-Centrair, New York-JFK, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Osaka-Kansai, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Prague, Qingdao, Rome-Fiumicino, San Francisco, Sao Paulo-Guarulhos, Sapporo-Chitose, Seattle/Tacoma, Shanghai-Pudong, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Shizuoka, Siem Reap, Singapore, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tashkent, Tel Aviv-Ben Gurion, Tianjin, Tokyo-Haneda, Tokyo-Narita, Toronto-Pearson, Ulan Bator, Vancouver, Vienna, Vladivostok, Washington-Dulles, Weihai, Wuhan, Xi’an, Xiamen, Yanji, Zhengzhou, Zurich Seasonal: Saint Petersburg Seasonal Charter: Anchorage, Urumqi, Zagreb Main Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich A Malaysia Airlines Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur A Mandarin Airlines Kaohsiung A Mega Maldives Gan, Male A MIAT Mongolian Airlines Ulan Bator A Orient Thai Airlines Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi A Philippine Airlines Cebu, Manila A Qatar Airways Doha A SAT Airlines Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk A Shandong Airlines Jinan, Qingdao, Yantai A Shanghai Airlines Shanghai-Pudong AShenzhen Airlines Shenzhen A Sichuan Airlines Chengdu A Singapore Airlines San Francisco, Singapore A Skywings Asia Airlines Siem Reap A StarFlyer Seasonal: Kitakyushu A Thai Airways International Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Hong Kong, Phuket, Taipei-Taoyuan A Turkish Airlines Istanbul-Ataturk A T’way Airlines Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Fukuoka [begins 20 December] Main & A Uni Air Kaohsiung A United Airlines San Francisco, Tokyo-Narita A Uzbekistan Airways Tashkent A Vietnam Airlines Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City A Vladivostok Air Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Khabarovsk, Vladivostok A Xiamen Airlines Xiamen A Yakutia Airlines Yakutsk A Zest Airways Cebu, Kalibo A