Nutr 313 Exam One Study Gide
Lecture 1 Hunger: biological; controlled by hypothalamus Appetite: psychological Alcohol: source of calories and energy How are nutrients classified? Macro (g) and micro (mg); essential and non essential (omega 3) What food groups are subdivided by? Grains – whole or refine Fruits – juices or whole Vegetables – color intensity Which group has plant and animal sources? Dairy, meat, oil Phytochemical – still yet to be discovered; plant-based substance; has extra benefit to diet Lecture 2 Scientific method – first step: define the questionWhat are red flags you might see in a nutrition advertisement: promise of quick and easy remedy; claim sounds too good to be true; scare tactics; attacks on motives and ethical standards of MDs; testimonials and anecdotes; promotes benefits and overlooks risk; uses clinical terms that are scientific sounding; incomplete references; recommendations based on a single study; tiny disclaimers Know more reliable sources of nutritional information: professional organizations, government agencies, trade/industry organizations; food companies; . ov or . org Know the best way to evaluate nutrition information – how do you know if it is valid or reliable: what is the motive; does the source cite reputable expert or peer-reviewed publications; was the experiment cited appropriate for the ad; how was the experiment conducted Lecture 3Know what percent daily values is and where you see it – Table 2-9 in book Know what the excellent claim is – provides 20% or more of daily value Recognize if something is low in fat: 3g or less per serving and if the serving is 30g or less or 2 tbspoons or less, per 50g of the food. 2% is not low fat Recognize if something is a source – provides at least 10% of daily value Know what is required on a nutrition fact panel: serving size expressed in one of 3 ways: •bulk products •fractional •discrete units servings per container amount per serving for:Total Calories, Calories from fat, Total fat, Saturated fat, Cholesterol, Sodium, Total carbohydrate, Dietary fiber, Sugars, Protein, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron Ingredients List – GRAS ingredients in decending order by weight : additives, preservative, allergens Daily Value (DV) based on a 2,000 Calorie diet (shows needs increase up to 3500kcals) Total fat: maximum of 30% of Calories, or less than 65 grams Saturated fat: maximum of 10% of Calories, or less than 20 grams Carbohydrates: minimum of 60% of Calories, or more than 300 grams Protein: based on 10 % of CaloriesFiber: based on 11. 5 grams of fiber per 1,000 Calories Cholesterol: less than 300 milligrams Sodium: less than 2,400 milligrams Know how North America is doing vs. he standards and goals – we hope to be less obese and less overweight, not so much carbohydrates are from sugar wished from more complex DRI, what is UL: Dietary Reference Intake; Upper Intake Level (intakes above it may lead to toxic reaction) Recognize comparative claims – relative vs content claim: Relative – claims compared to other similar products; Content: speaks to the nutrients that food contains (boasts good, minimizes bad) Recognized approved health claims: calcium and osteoporosis, fat and cancer, saturated fat and cholesterol and coronary heart disease, fiber-containing grain products, fruits and vegetables and cancer, fiber-containing grain products, fruits and vegetables and risk of coronary heart disease, sodium and hypertension fruits and vegetables and cancer, soy protein and heart disease Symbols used on foods – Organic, Irradiation, Kosher, Green packaging, self-styled, branded additives, professional orgs endorsement Food guide pyramid: Grains (3-10oz); vegetables (1-4 cups); fruits (1-2.
5 cups); dairy (2-3 cups); protein (2-7oz); oils (3-11 tsp. ) Nutrient density is – concept with coke can and glass of milk, nutrient content to the calorie content Lecture 4 Which metabolic system requires oxygen: aerobic Anatomy of gastrointestinal tract: esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum) Some problems that occur: heartburn (GERD), ciliacs, diarrhea Heartburn disease – why does it occur?Sphincter is relaxed and stomach acid gets pushed back up and burns esophagus; caused by overeating and alcohol consumption (ethanol in alcohol relaxes the sphincter); pregnancy; tight clothes; chocolate, smoking, caffeine (all stimulants); acidic food (tomatoes) Name of contraction that pushes food through the digestive system: peristalsis Major site of nutrient absorption: small intestine Major organ system related to nutrition and function they serve: Mouth: chemical and mechanical breakdown Esophagus: move by contraction to stomach Stomach: secretion of gastric juices, protein denaturation, kills bacteria, pepsin, protein digestion, mucus for protection Small intestine: secretion of pancreas, enzymes break down protein, fat, carbs, secretion of gall bladder Large intestine: water & electrolyte absorption, bacterial action, fermentation Basic organization of human body: cell -> tissue -> organs Different hormones responsible for metabolism: insulin (anabolic – building) & glucagon (catabolic – breaking down)