Exam 3 Study Guide Emotion and Motivation 1. What were the key components of Dr. Gewirtz’s definition of emotion? It’s different than “feelings”, “A state, elicited by a strongly motivational (i. e. “reinforcing”) event or by anticipation of such an event, that produces a coordinated set of adaptive responses. 2. Emotional responses have three aspects: “feelings,” autonomic responses, and somatic responses. What does each of these refer to? Feelings: Introspection, subjective Autonomic Responses: Sympathetic activation, hormonal Somatic Responses: Facial expressions, approach or avoidance 3.
What is the evolutionary view of emotion as originally proposed by Darwin? What is the adaptive value of emotion? What evidence suggests that these emotions are innate? Emotion promotes survival of the species, emotional responses are instinctive and universal, rather than learned and culture-specific 4. What are Ekman’s six (or seven) basic emotions? Happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, surprise, (contempt) 5. How can researchers study emotion? In humans? In rats? What is the fear-potentiated startle response? How is the fear-potentiated started acquired by rats? 6. What is the International Affective Picture System (IAPS)?
How is research done with the IAPS? Emotion has two dimensions, valence (pleasant and unpleasant) and arousal. What kinds of images are associated with dimensions? What are the three primary motive systems, according to Dr. Gewirtz? What is meant by a motive system? IAPS: 800+ pictures with normative ratings of valence (pleasant versus unpleasant) and arousal 7. What is a phobia? Compared to most people, what is the measure startle of individuals with phobia to pleasant, high arousal images? To neutral, low arousal images? To unpleasant, high arousal images? To the object of their phobia? 8. What is a psychopath?
Compared to most people, what is the measured startle of psychopaths to pleasant, high arousal images? To neutral, low arousal images? To unpleasant, high arousal images? 9. What is the role of the amygdale in emotion? What behavioral symptoms of anxiety are associated with the amygdale? What happens to fear when the amygdale is lesioned? Amygdale=Fear and aggression. When the amygdale is lesioned, people feel less fear 10. What is exposure therapy? How can exposure therapy be used for the treatment of PTSD or fear or flying? What does extinction of a fear response involve—is the memory erased or a new response learned?
How does DCS (C-clycloserine) be used to speed up extinction? Why? Exposure therapy is the most effective behavioral treatment for anxiety, can be done using virtual reality technology. Causes patient to inhibit their state of fear 11. What is a flashbulb memory? How can beta-blockers be used to treat PTSD? Flashbulb Memory: Storage and/or retrieval of memories is enhanced by a high state of arousal at the time of encoding Beta blockers block norepinephrine, causing the memories to have less of an emotional impact. 12. What are rewards? What are typical rewards for humans? What is the nucleus accumbens?
Why is it associated with the reward pathway? Rewards are stimuli that motivate behavior -> behaviors that are rewarded are more likely to be repeated. Rewarding stimuli cause the release of dopamine from cells in the ventral tegmental area of the brain 13. What is drug addiction and how does addiction happen? What are three mechanisms of addiction described in lecture? Drug addiction: Habitual drug use, despite adverse effects on health and social life and, generally, despite efforts to quit, happens by drugs “hijacking” the brain’s reward system Mechanisms: 1) Drug activates reward system and produces a “high” ) Craving: Drug produces urge to consume more 3) Withdrawal: Cessation of drug use causes anxiety and depression 14. What is the two-factor theory of Emotion? What were the findings of the Dutton & Aron bridge study? How were these findings consistent with the two-factor theory of emotion? Two Factor Theory: Theory proposing that emotions are produced by an undifferentiated state of arousal along with an attribution (explanation) of that arousal First we’re aroused, then we seek to interpret the cause of that arousal 15.
What is the Mere Exposure effect? What is Facial-feedback hypothesis? 16. What kinds of things make us happier? Marriage, friendships, college, religion, political affiliation, exercise, gratitude, giving, flow 17. What is Drive Reduction theory (formulated by Clark Hull, Donald Hebb and others)? What is the Yerkes-Dodson Law? What does it predict as the optimal conditions for performance? What are approach-approach conflicts? Approach-Avoidance conflicts? Avoidance-Avoidance conflicts?
Drive Reduction Theory: Theory proposing that certain drives, like hunger, thirst and sexual frustration motivate us to act in ways that minimize aversive states Yerkes-Dodson Law: Inverted U-shaped relation between arousal on the one hand, and mood and performance on the other Optimal conditions=very middle between low and high arousal Approach: A predisposition toward certain stimuli, like food or objects of our sexual desire Avoidance: A disposition away from certain stimuli, like rude people or frightening animals 18. What are the three major principles that guide attraction and relationship formation? Proximity: Physical nearness
Similarity: Extent to which we have things in common with others Reciprocity: Rule of give and take – do the like us back? Differential Psychology: Intelligence, Behavior Genetics, Gender 1. What is the study of individual differences (differential psychology) and what kinds of questions does it study? What is the Nature versus Nurture controversy? Study of Individual Differences: Area of psychology devoted to investigating the nature, origin and consequences of individual differences in behavior Major domains: Intellectual ability and achievement, personality & emotion, interests & values, and psychopathology 2.
Why is differential psychology prone to controversy? What was the eugenics movement? Eugenics: Movement in the early twentieth century to improve a population’s genetic stock by encouraging those with good genes to reproduce, preventing those with bad genes from reproducing, or both 3. Who was Francis Galton? Alfred Binet? Francis Galton: Strongly believed that nature is greater than nurture 4. What is the basic logic of a behavior genetics study? What do MZA, MZT, DZA, DZT, URT refer to? How can this method tease apart nature versus nurture questions? What is the role the shared environment to make individuals reared together more similar?
What is the role of unshared environment to make individuals reared together less similiar? 5. Looking for converging lines of evidence is similar to which of the six flags of critical thinking? 6. What are some definitions of intelligence? What does it mean to say that “intelligence” is a theoretical construct? What are things that correlate with intelligence? Intelligence: Refers to the ability to understand and use complex ideas, adapt effectively to the environment, learn from experience and engage in abstract reasoning 7. One argument about intelligence is whether it is one thing or multifaceted.
What is the evidence that intelligence is one thing? What is “g”? What is Gardner’s theory, and what are the criticisms of it? What are crystallized and fluid intelligence? g (general intelligence): Hypothetical factor that accounts for overall differences in intellect among people Gardner’s theory: Individuals vary in the types of intelligence at which they excel Crystallized Intelligence: Accumulated knowledge of the world acquired over time Fluid Intelligence: Capacity to learn new ways of solving problems 8. What is an IZ, and how does one calculate it? What does mental age mean?
Mental Age: the age at which a child’s intellectual performance is typical 9. Achievement tests, ability tests and aptitude tests measure different things, in theory. What does each in theory measure? If the correlation between ability and aptitude tests in . 8, how would you interpret the claim that they measure different things? Achievement: Assess mastery of a specific educational program (Psy 1001 Final) Ability: Assess current level of cognitive competence (IQ Test) Aptitude: Predict future performance (SAT) 10. What is validity? Reliability? How does one evaluate how good a test is?
Valid: Does the test measure what it purports to measure? (Accuracy) Reliability: Does the test produce consistent scores (Consistency) 11. How stable is IQ over time? IQ is very stable over short periods but can show large shifts over longer intervals or with young children 12. What is the Flynn effect? What hypotheses are offered to explain the Flynn effect? Flynn effect: We’re slowly getting more intelligent as a population Hypotheses: 1 Increased test sophistication2)Increased complexity of the modern world3)Better nutrition4)Changes at home and school 13. What are some IQ differences between men and women?
How would a socialization theory explain those differences? What is a biological explanation for those differences? 14. What is the Parental investment theory? How does this theory explain the differences between men and women? What evidence is consistent with this? Parental Investment Theory: The sex that invests greatest resources in offspring rearing will be more selective, the sex that invests less in offspring rearing will compete for access 15. How are gender and sex confounded? What is the role of hormones in pre-natal sexual development? What is Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)?
What evidence does it provide that hormones play a role in the development of behaviors that are considered male? The case study of an identical male twin raised as a female? What does that suggest about the role of the rearing environment? Gender: Gender Identity and Gender-Role Behavior Biological Construction- Genetic sex, Internal reproductive organs, External genitalia CAH: Levels of cortisol are low and anterior pituitary is no longer inhibitedAnterior pituitary produces more hormone to stimulate adrenal cortex so the cortex becomes thickened and only able to produce Androgens (which it produces in high amounts) In English? Relatively high exposure to masculinizing androgen hormones prenatally, and typical female rearing postnatally Case study conclusion: Our gendered behavior is shaped not only by our socialization experiences but also by our biology 16. What is the evidence for “smart brains” – in terms of efficiency, size, development, location of activity in brain; what about reaction time and memory? 17. Describe the approach measured by commonly used IQ tests: the WAIS, the Ravens, the WISC. Why would you choose to use one or the other?
WAIS: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: Most widely used intelligence test for adults today, consisting of 15 subtests to assess different types of mental abilities WISC: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 18. What are the characteristics of individuals diagnosed as having mental retardation? What are the criteria for diagnosis? What is Downs syndrome? Mental Retardation: Characterized by an onset prior to adulthood, an IQ below about 70, and an inability to engage in adequate daily functioning 1) Onset prior to adulthood ) IQ below approximately 70 3) Inadequate adaptive functioning Downs Syndrome: Result of an extra copy of chromosome 21—mild or moderate retardation 19. What defines someone who is gifted? What was the Terman study? How much time is required to attain remarkable intellectual achievements? Terman Study: 1,500 junior high students with IQs of 135 or higher, contradicted two claims 1)Almost all child prodigies “burn out” in adulthood 97 earned doctoral degrees, 57 medical degrees, 92 law degrees 2) There’s an intimate link between genius and madness
Lower rates of mental illness and suicide than among general population 20. In terms of environmental effects on IQ, what evidence suggests that school affects IQ? What evidence suggests that socioeconomic deprivation and nutrition affect IQ? School: Children who have attended an extra year of school tend to have higher IQs, children’s IQs drop significantly during summer vacations, students who drop out of school end up with lower IQs than students who stay in school Socioeconomic and Nutrition: Studies suggest that malnutrition in childhood can lower IQ
Personality, Theory, Research, and Assessment 1. Dr. Simpson defined personality as “distinctive, characteristic patterns of thought, emotion and behavior that uniquely define an individual. What is meant by distinctive in this definition? They’re the parts of you that are most important in distinguishing you from others: Characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior that uniquely define an individual 2. What is the Person-situation debate? Who was Walter Mischel? Different situations constrain an individual’s behavior- i. e. n lecture most students seem low in gregariousness, low in impulsivity and high in conscientiousness Mischel strongly believed behavior was controlled by the situation one is in 3. What are the characteristics and assumptions of a self-report measure? What are the following examples of this kind of measure: MMPI, CPI, BPP? What are the features of projective tests? What is the basic assumption underlying projective tests? What is the Thematic Appercepion test? The Rorschach? What are the strengths and limitations of both? 4. What is factor analysis? When is factor analysis useful?
A statistical approach to determining how many concepts are measured by a set of questions 5. What is mean by an idiographic approach to personality? What is a nomothetic approach to personality? Nomothetic: “Compared with others”, everyone has certain traits to some degree (there’s a limited subset of traits), they only differ in amount — Focuses on identifying general laws that govern the behavior of all individuals Idiographic: Unique constellation of unique attributes, cannot compare across people – Focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within a person 6.
Gordon Allport proposed a three-level idiographic approach to personality with three levels: cardinal traits, central disposition, and secondary dispositions. What kinds of characteristics are found at each of these? Cardinal: Extremely pervasive in a person’s life Central: A few traits that stand out in a person Secondary: Less salient characteristics, may operate in only limited settings 7. What is a personality trait? What is the Five Factor Model? What are the five traits and what behaviors are characteristic of low or high scores on each trait? In what ways are you using the Big 5?
The five factors that emerge in most factor analyses of personality traits from the dictionary Extraversion: Sociable, talkative, assertive, friendly … Silent, passive, reserved Agreeableness:Sympathetic, kind, trusting, cooperative … Suspicious, difficult, untrusting, aggressive Conscientiousness: Organized, disciplined, dependable, diligent … Careless, negligent, unreliable Neuroticism: Anxious, moody, tense, vulnerable … Relaxed, poised, steady Openness to Experience: Imaginative, curious, creative, unconventional … Unimaginative, uninterested in aesthetics, inflexible 8.
What is the lexical hypothesis? If a factor is represented by many more words, in a given language than is other languages, what inference can you make about that culture, given the Lexical Hypothesis. Lexical Hypothesis: All meaningful individual differences have been encoded into language 9. Roughly speaking, what is the average heritability of the Big 5 factors? Due at least partially to differences in our genotypes 10. Who is Sigmund Freud? What are the three assumptions that set Freudian theory apart from other theories of personality?
What is each of the following components of personality: Id, the ego and the superego? What is the reality principle? Sigmund Freud: Founder of psychoanalysis 3 Core Assumptions: 1) Psychic Determinism: All psychological events have a cause 2) Symbolic Meaning: No action is meaningless 3) Unconscious Motivation: We rarely understand why we do what we do Id: Reservoir of our most primitive impulses, including sex and aggression Ego: Psyche’s executive and principal decision maker Superego: Our sense of morality
Reality Principle: Tendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet 11. Explain how the following defense mechanisms work: repression, denial, regression, reaction-formation, projection, displacement, rationalization, identification with the aggressor, sublimination. -Repression: Motivated forgetting or emotionally threatening memories or impulses -Denial: Motivated forgetting of distressing experiences -Regression: Returning psychologically to a younger and safer time -Reaction-formation: Transforming an anxiety-producing experience into its opposite Projection: Unconscious attribution of our negative qualities onto others -Displacement: Directing an impulse from a socially unacceptable target onto a more acceptable one -Rationalization: Providing reasonable-sounding explanations for unreasonable behaviors or failures -Identification with the Aggressor: Adopting the psychological characteristics of people we find threatening -Sublimination: Transforming a socially unacceptable impulse into an admired and socially valued goal 12. Who were the Neo-Freudians? Who was Alfred Adler? According to Adler, what is the principal motive in human personality? What is the inferiority complex?
Who was Carl Jung? What did Jung mean by the personal unconscious? What is the collective unconscious? What are archetypes? Neo-Freudians: Freud’s own students who forged their own models of personality Alfred Adler: Principal motive in human personality is striving for superiority- our overall goal in life is to be better than others Inferiority Complex: Feelings of low self-esteem that can lead to overcompensation for such feelings Carl Jung: Personal Unconscious: Freud’s version of the unconscious Collective Unconscious: Our shared storehouse of memories that ancestors have passed down to us across generations 13.
What are the key assumptions of the humanistic approach to personality? Who is Carl Rogers and what is his view of personality structure? What is the self? What is incongruence? What are conditions of worth? Humanistic Approach: Rejects determinism of psychoanalysts and behaviorists and embraced the notion of free will- we can choose either socially constructive or destructive paths in life Carl Rogers: Believed that we could all achieve our full potential for emotional fulfillment if only society allowed it The Self: Our self-concept, the set of beliefs about who we are
Incongruence: Inconsistency between our personalities and innate dispositions Conditions of Worth: Expectations we place on ourselves for appropriate and inappropriate behavior 14. Who is Abraham Maslow and what is his theory of self-actualization? What are the characteristics of self-actualized people? What are peak experiences? Maslow: Hierarchy of needs, focused on the self-actualized—those who are creative, spontaneous and accepting of themselves and others.
Self-confident but not self-centered, focused on real-world and intellectual problems Peak Experiences: Transcendent moment of intense excitement and tranquility marked by a profound sense of connection to the world Evolutionary Psychology 15. What are the basic assumptions of evolutionary psychology? 16. What is natural selection? Selective breeding? Natural Selection: Genes that improve survival and reproductive success get passed on in larger numbers to the next generation Evolution has “designed” the body and the brain to maximize the number genes left in future generations 17.
What are some things that the human brain is specialized to do? Learn language, fear snakes, spiders and heights, Detect healthy/unhealthy others, Identify “cheaters” in groups 18. What is the evidence for sexual selection? What is sexual dimorphism and when is it found? What is Parental Investment theory? Sexual Dimorphism: The average size difference between males and females in a species, is less when both sexes invest in offspring more equally, reversed when males invest more than females Parental Investment Theory: Human babies are born “prematurely” – the survival of human children depended on investment from both parents 19.
Why are women pickier about potential mates? Males have evolved to detect what characteristics of females? Females have evolved to detect males with what characteristics? What female tradeoffs do researchers find? What male tradeoffs do researchers find? Females are pickier about mates because females initially invest more in offspring and can produce fewer offspring across the lifespan than males Males detect females who can have viable children and are not likely to mate with other men Women detect males who will pass desirable traits onto their offspring and will invest resources in hem/their offspring Female Trade-offs: Marry a good provider, but remain open to selective mating with men who have good genes Male Trade-offs: Best way to attract and retain a mate = offer good provision and invest heavily in one relationship 20. What is meant by inclusive fitness? What is the reasoning behind the evidence that step-parents are more likely to be abusive than biological parents? Human Development 21. How do we study the characteristics that infants are born with? What abilities are present at birth? What is habituation? How is it used to study infant abilities? What reflexes are present in very young infants?
Infant Abilities: Pattern discrimination, face perception, learning and memory, emotion expression, responsiveness Habituation: Decreased response to a stimulation with longer exposure Grabbing and sucking reflexes are present 22. What is a cross-sectional study? What is a longitudinal study? What is a cohort? Cross-Sectional Study: Research design that examines people of different ages at a single point in time Longitudinal Study: Research design that examines development in the same group of people on multiple occasions over time Cohort: Individuals growing up at the same time 23. What are three kinds of infant abilities at birth?
What is the evidence for each of these? 24. What emotions are found in babies at birth? What emotions appear between 2-6 months? What is meant by a social reflex? Birth: Interest, disgust, distress, contentment 2-6 Months: Anger, sadness, surprise, fear Social Reflexes: Newborns imitate facial gestures (open mouth, stick out tongue), young infants fixate on eyes and can track gaze 25. Define teratogen. Identify some common teratogens. Identify the causes and symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Teratogens: Chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus and cause harm Irradiation, Rubella, Cortisone, Alcohol
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Impaired growth and neurological abnormalities resulting from heavy exposure to alcohol during gestation (first 3 months of fetal development, 5 or more drinks/day) Causes learning disabilities, physical growth retardation, facial malformations and behavioral disorders 26. What is the visual cliff? What does research with the visual cliff suggest about the role of experience on development? What was the sticky mitten intervention and how are these findings convergent with the visual cliff research? Visual cliff: Psychological apparatus for studying depth perception 27.
What is plasticity? Is more stimulation always a good thing? Plasticity: Brain circuitry is “filled in” after birth, more stimulation environments More complex, better functioning brain tissue, better recovery after brain injury More stimulation is not always a good thing! 28. How did Janet Werker study the capacity of infants to detect speech sounds? What are her findings? What is meant by universal adaptability? Werker’s procedure: Record non-native speech, teach sound changes, play non-native speech changes Universal Adaptability: Capacity of infants to detect all speech sounds 29.
Desccribe the stages of infant language development, as explained during lecture. What is the evidence for innate language capacities? Babbling: Comes to sound like native language One-word Stage: Babies start by saying what they can pronounce Two-word stage: Function words are omitted (a, the, of) Increasing Syntactic Competence Evidence for innate language capacities Teaching has little effect, adults=poor tutors and models, children are creative, non-hearing children create their own language 30. Who is Jean Piaget? What is Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development? How was it developed?
Describe the cognitive processes of assimilation and accommodation. What is a schema and what is it used for? What is equilibration? Jean Piaget: First psychologist to develop a comprehensive theory of cognitive development –Rested on assumption that children’s thinking was not just an immature form of adult thinking but that it was fundamentally different Assimilation: Absorbing new experiences into current knowledge structures Accommodation: Altering a belief to make it more compatible with experience Schema: Organized knowledge structure or mental model that we’ve stored in memory- helps us categorize new experiences 31.
Piaget’s first cognitive stage is called the Sensorimotor stage. What are the characteristics of this stage? Define object permanence. We will see a video of Rene Baillargeon’s research on object permanence. What was her method? What were her findings? Sensorimotor Stage: Characterized by a focus on the here and now without the ability to represent experiences mentally (Birth to 2 years) Object Permanence: Objects exist even when not in view (children in this stage lack it) 32. Piaget’s second cognitive stage is called the Preoperational stage. What are the characteristics of this stage?
What defines when one has moved from one stage to the next? What is the principle of conservation? What is egocentrism? Explain these concepts. Describe the changes in cognitive functioning revealed by classic conservation test (pouring colored water into different sizes containers. ) Preoperational Stage: Able to think beyond the here and now, but egocentric and unable to perform mental transformations (2-7 years) Conservation: Task requiring children to understand that despite a transformation in the physical presentation of an amount, the amount remains the same Egocentrism: Inability to see the world from others’ perspectives 33.
Piaget’s third cognitive stage is called Concrete Operations stage. What are the characteristics of this stage? Define ‘mental operations’. What does ‘concrete’ thinking refer to? Concrete Operational: Able to perform mental transformations but only on concrete physical objects (7-11 years) 34. Piaget’s fourth cognitive stage is the Formal operational period. What are the characteristics of this stage? What is ‘abstract thinking’? Formal Operational: Able to perform hypothetical and abstract reasoning (11-adulthood) Abstract: experiment systematically with hypotheses and xplain outcomes, understand logical concepts and either-or statements 35. What is the theory of mind? What is the False Belief Test? At what age does a child gain the cognitive ability to take another child’s point of view- to understand differences between what the child knows and what someone else may know? That what you know, others also know. At what age do children begin to deliberately deceive others? Theory of Mind: Ability to reason about what other people know or believe False Belief Test: Child participant knows something about which someone else is unaware.
When asked what that “someone” thinks, will the child respond from their own point of view or the point of view of the “someone” in the story? – children don’t succeed until age 4 or 5 36. What is representational change? When do children learn to mistrust an unreliable informant? What is the difference between a three year old and a four year old in their response to an inaccurate informant? Four year olds are more likely to realize that just because an individual is an expert in one topic, this is not an indicator that they are an expert in all topics 37.
What are the characteristics of Kohlberg’s preconventional level of moral reasoning? The conventional level of moral reasoning? The postconventional level of moral reasoning? What are some criticism of Kohlberg? Preconventional: Marked by focus on punishment and reward Conventional: Focus on societal values Postconventional: Focus on internal moral principles that transcend society Criticisms: Cultural bias, sex bias, low correlation with moral behavior, confound with verbal intelligence, causal direction 38. In terms of social development, describe social referencing.
Explain self-recognition. How does a researcher test for self-recognition? What is the rouge test? At what age does self-recognition emerge? Self-Recognition: Tested by exposing children to mirrors who have never seen them before Social Referencing: Basing personal reactions on others 39. What does research say about which parenting styles are most effective for promoting healthy development? What are Baumrind’s three major parenting styles: Permissive, Authoritarian, and Authoritative? Permissive: Lenient with children, very little discipline, shower children with affection
Authoritarian: Strict with children, abundant use of punishment, show little affection Authoritative: Best of both worlds! Supportive but set clear and firm limits Research says authoritative is the best. 40. What is gender identity? Gender Role? What are typical boy toys? Girl toys? What is the evidence that gender has biological basis? As discussed in your discussion sections, what is relational aggression? What is the relationship between aggression and gender? Gender Identity: Individuals’ sense of being male or female
Gender Role: A set of behaviors that tend to be associated with being male or female Boy Toys: Balls, guns and fire trucks Girl Toys: Dolls, stuffed animals and cookware Monkeys show same preferences with toys, Relational Aggression: Emotionally aggressive * While boys tend to be more physically aggressive, girls tend to be more relationally aggressive Attachment Theory (both personality and development) 41. What does attachment theory refer to? What are the three stages of separation distress? What is meant by the functions of attachment: proximity, safe haven, secure base?
What is the strange situation test? What parenting styles are associated with the different kinds of attachment that emerge between an infant and its mother? Humans have a strong need to form and maintain stable relationships- the same feelings that keep parents emotionally attached to their children may also keep romantic partners bonded. 3 Primary Functions: 1) Proximity Maintenance 2) Safe Haven 3) Secure Base: Comfort provided by attachment figures, allows individuals to venture forth more confidently and explore their environment 42.
Identify the characteristics of children who have different kinds of attachment. How are children assigned to an attachment style? 1) Contingent/Responsive CareBecoming secure: Trust that others will provide love and support 2) Rejecting Care Becoming Avoidant: Defensively detach/withdraw from others 3) Inconsistent/Unpredictable Care Become anxious-ambivalent: Fear abandonment; feel their needs might not be met 43. Describe Harry Harlow’s research with monkeys. Describe key findings of Harlow’s research. What theories were Harlow comparing?
Define contact comfort. Contact comfort: Positive emotions afforded by touch — Infant monkeys almost always prefer the terry cloth mother over the wire one, even though the wire one has a bottle 44. Describe the long-term consequences of the secure attachment style, especially in love relationships? What were the patterns of support found by Dr. Simpson in his research on couple behavior in stressful situations? What are the internal working models of the different kinds of attachment? When are working models activated?