In the field of medicine, there are no unclaimed specializations. But pediatrics is one of the most necessary branches. Researchers have proved that the child is a constantly developing organism from birth to adulthood. Health and life of the child depend on the pediatrician; only he can answer the question whether the baby is developing correctly. Parents are not always able to come to the correct conclusion independently. The pediatrician’s work is a huge responsibility since all parents consider their children the greatest sense of their lives. The pediatrician’s mistake, which caused the deterioration of the child’s health, is unforgivable. Pediatric case studies for medical students are designed to teach students the correct diagnosis, ethical behavior with children and parents, and students can both conduct research independently under the supervision of a professor, and study already ready research on certain topics.
Methods of Conducting a Case Study in Pediatrics
Pediatric primary care case studies imply the unique method of research. It requires the doctor not only to have a good knowledge of the age-related anatomical and physiological characteristics of children but also some special ability to approach the child, to enter into a good relationship with him and force him to believe and obey. The pediatrician in the study of children should not only perfectly master the special technique of research, but, in addition, have exceptional patience and endurance, never get irritated near the bed of a restless and disobedient little patient.
A lot of patience, endurance, tact and genuine sensitivity are required from the doctor and in relation to the mother and other relatives of a child. A pediatric physician should never be limited to only therapeutic functions but should pay considerable attention primarily to prevention, and not only dietetics and hygiene, but also issues of upbringing, not forgetting that the pediatrician is not only a doctor but often to some extent also a teacher of both the child and the mother.
The study of the child includes two stages. The initial one is anamnesis. The second one includes an objective examination of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, lymph nodes, muscle system, bone system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, digestive organs, urogenital organs, blood, nervous system, general physical development.
Pediatric Asthma Case Study
Due to the deterioration of the environment and a significant increase in respiratory infections, childhood immunity is significantly reduced. Because of this, children’s bronchial asthma and various allergic reactions are becoming more common. This is the initial reason for conducting a pediatric asthma case study.
Asthma is a chronic disease caused by the inflammation of the respiratory tract and, as a result, spasm of the bronchi, which begin to release a large amount of mucus. This prevents the normal passage of air through the respiratory tract. Children’s bronchial asthma may have different symptoms. Symptoms can also change at different ages. This makes a pediatric case study of asthma especially important since it will allow gathering as more symptoms and conditions of their development as possible.
Asthma is the main chronic disease in children. 10-12% of children in the world suffer from asthma, and this figure is constantly increasing. To make a diagnosis, only the symptoms are not enough. It is necessary to conduct additional tests to exclude other pathology that causes respiratory failure. Almost 50% of children who complain of shortness of breath has a chronic cough or chronic laryngitis but does not have asthma. Therefore, such a condition in children is characterized as a reactive airway disease. Making case studies in pediatrics related to this disease will allow distinguishing one illness from another and determining the proper treatment of a child.
How to Confirm Asthma in a Framework of a Case Study
- The first step is to investigate the patient’s history and listen to complaints. Parents should inform the doctor of all episodes of shortness of breath that they observed in the child. The doctor should find out whether relatives suffer from asthma, allergies, lung disease. It is important to give the doctor the complete information and correctly describe the symptoms (a cough, wheezing, pain or a feeling of contraction in the chest), to note when and how often these symptoms manifest.
- The second stage is a physical examination. The doctor listens to the lungs and the heart of a small patient and looks for signs of allergic reactions in the child.
- The last step is instrumental and laboratory studies. Radiography and spirometry (for children over 6 years of age) give information on the structure and function of the lungs. The spirometer measures the volume of inhalation/expiration, that is, the volume of the lungs, and also the rate of expiration. The stage of the disease is also determined. Other methods are also used, and they include testing for allergic skin rashes, a blood test (radioallergosorbent test).