Argumentative Essay on Study Guide
The following is a general guide that will provide some direction and guidance in your studying for Quiz One (chapters 1-4). Please contact me if you have any questions, or if any of these categories are unclear to you (via the Chat Room of course)! Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective The definition of tourism What four things does tourism include? 1. The tourist 2. The business providing goods & services 3. The government of the host community or area 4.
The host community Who is a tourist? US definition and UNTO definition US Definition
A tourist is one who travels away from home for a distance of at least 50 miles (one way) for business, pleasure, personal affairs or any other purpose except to commute to work, whether he stays there overnight or returns the same day UNTO Definition Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes Types of tourism (International, Internal, Domestic, National) International Inbound (visits to a country by nonresidents)
Outbound (visits by residents of a country to another country Internal Visits by residents and nonresidents of the country of reference Domestic Visits by residents of a country to their own country National Internal tourism plus outbound tourism (the resident tourism market) Types of Travelers (Same-day visitors/excursionists, tourists, recreations) Same-day visitors Visitors who don’t spend the night Tourists Visitors who stay in the country at least one night Recreations Participating in leisure activities within 50 miles of residence Recreations, mutters, migrants and students are often excluded from being identified as travelers World/regional tourism trends bob growth, international arrivals, tourism earners, etc) Types of approaches to the study of tourism Institutional Approach Considers only the institutions that directly perform tourism activities 0 hotels, motels, travel agents… If you only examine tourism from this perspective, you miss non-tourism organizations and institutions (hospitals, manufacturers, etc. ) Size of the US tourism industry, arrivals, future growth, etc.
Leading countries in tourist arrivals
Leading countries in tourism receipts/expenditures General Benefits and Costs of Tourism Benefits Employment opportunities Increased income Diversify the economy Reinforces preservation of heritage and tradition Tax revenue Promotes understanding and peace Costs Environmental destruction Inflation Social problems from tourist and locals clashing Commercialese culture, religion and the arts Acculturation Culture changes that occur in a host community in order to attract and appease tourists (long-term). Cultural Drift more temporary, cyclical cultural changes (occur only during high tourist season for example). Demonstration Effect society adopts culture norms and mores of the tourists society (wearing trendy designer label shoes, listening to music from the guests culture).
Chapter 2: History of Tourism Contributions from each of the major civilizations touched on in the book Sumerians First to use: Money Writing The wheel Travel agents The founders of travel and modern humanity Egyptians Earliest known tourist attractions were the sphinx and the pyramids at Gaza Along with the Sumerians, they also were into acquiring souvenirs Egypt was probably the action of the first cruise (along the Nile) Romans The first pleasure travelers, first beach goers First great elaborate road/highway builders Traveled up to 100 miles a day using relays of horses Greeks Olympic games – offered athletic performance, sacrifice, religious observance, and artistic performances Took museums to the next level (from “K” to Great! ) Developed great art collections in Greek temples Herodotus, Grace’s “father of history’ was a major early historian, traveler, and writer Phoenicians First great maritime empire Invented the concept of “middlemen” Carried a variety of goods
Chinese Chinese tourism history has been ignored until recently Emperors of China had ministers for travel more than 4,000 years ago to visit religious sites that paid homage to a wide range of gods and goddesses Polynesians Built small canoes that traveled extremely long distances in the Pacific ocean Innovative navigators Europeans (Mainly British) Development of the railroad encouraged/established mass tourism Developed seaside resorts for medical/health/curative reasons, as well as gambling, dancing, and other social events Developed English taverns in order to service stagecoach revelers Where the “Grand Tour” originated Americans Developed “ordinaries” (defined in text) Developed the Model T, which revolutionized family vacations and travel First scheduled international air travel was by Pan American World Airlines First to create national parks (Yellowstone, 1872) Location of many modern-day wonders, including Yellowstone, Grand Canyon, Yosemite, Niagara Falls and the Great Lakes Famous early women travel writers* (Not in the book) Lady Mary Worldly Montague (1689-1762) Husband was a British Ambassador to Turkey Wrote a book of letters home The 1st to challenge stereotypes of the East Allowed her children to be “engraved” (vaccinated) in Turkey 70 years before it was accepted in England Harriet Martinets (1802-1876) Wrote “How to Observe”, a guide for travelers that took seriously the educational aspect of travel Actually did not enjoy traveling! Thought of travel as a means of study, and the hardships a necessary evil for the rewards of knowledge Traveled to the US to analyze “the gulf between principle and practice” of democracy and found it, in the form of slavery..
Isabella Bird (1831-1904) 0+ before she ever traveled Got married for the first time at age 50 after caring for her parents for most of her adult life 1st woman to address the Royal Geographical society in London (1892) Visited Hawaii, circumnavigated Colorado on horseback solo Gertrude sell (1868-1926) Epitomized Victorian contradictions: great mountaineer but would never walk alone in London (“unladylike”) Traveled extensively in Arabia (Middle East) further into the desert than any other woman, yet asked her parent’s permission to marry a British Ambassador and when they said no, he declined the proposal. Odd at age 58 after being “forgotten” by the Persian dignitaries she helped to place in power Frey Stark (1893-1993) In 1927, she visited Syria and Persia; made major map corrections WWW II southern Arabia expert to the Ministry of Information in London At age 77 traveled to Nepal on Bankbook Had romantic adventures; broke the hearts of several men; married only 1 time and then for only 1 year Thomas Cook, Marco Polo, Herodotus, The ‘Grand’ Tour Chapter 3: Careers in Tourism Types of Jobs and Job skill requirements in various sectors of tourism Tourism