A set of two or more humans who have developed a common social identity by interacting and collectively have a sense of unity refers to a group.
Social groups may be an in-group, the case in which one feels that he or she belongs to a particular social group or an out-group whereby an individual feels hatred and desire to compete against a certain group of which he or she is not a member. Desire for unity during decision making within a group of people often results in faulty decisions due to failure of essential analysis of other alternatives. Advantages obtained from group decision making by considering different ideas and knowledge get overlooked in pursuit of cohesion. Members of a group with similar circumstances and insulated from opinions outside that lot are more vulnerable to groupthink as they feel too good about themselves. Overestimation of the group’s abilities results in close mindedness as the members fail to obtain information and advice on the proper course of action from experts.
There is also, bias in the way members deal with factual information. They make rationalizations in order to discount warnings and reject messages of argument which if taken seriously may cause the group to rethink their assumptions in decision making. Individuals with different opinions keep them to themselves so as not to raise disturbing opinions that might threaten the cohesiveness within the group. Think groups create negative, stereotypical views of opponents groups and use them to reduce decision conflicts between true values and expediency. They believe that the opponent groups are so dirty that negotiating differences with them is uncalled for.
Another believes is that the opponent group is too weak and slow to deal with the challenges of that group. This removes interaction with other groups that might have contributed in a positive way in the decision making of a group.