Urbanization in Gloucester (MEDC) Case Study
In the 1800s farmers often brought food and produce into a market going down a well established route, entering from the east side of the city and through the east gate. This route was now called East road. Blacksmiths saw the east road as an opportunity for business and soon began establishing workshops along it. They were soon joined by ironmongers, saddlers, cobblers and carpenters who all set up workshops along the busy roads.As the 1800s progressed the industrial revolution came and with its help the city soon began to take shape.
The industrial revolution brought coal powered, steam driven machinery to the already established workshops and transformed them into small factories. The factories required a constant supply of coal, so in the 1830s the city had built a network of canals with barges distributing coal around the city.Factories thrived and expanded and they needed a large workforce, which soon migrated into the city. The factory workers need accommodation so small terrace houses were built. Large grand houses were built for wealthy factory owners, traders, merchants and bankers in the west side of the city, far away from the industrial east side. Throughout the mid 1800s the city continued to grow outwards as houses were built on the edge of the city.
In 1879 horse drawn trams were introduced in order to transport he increasing number of people to their workplaces in the center of the city.By 1930 an electric tram system was built in order to serve the growing number of homes being built on the edge of the city.In 1940 the city growth came to a halt and all resources were channeled into the war. The city’s industrial center was bombed and completely destroyed. Growth eventually resumed in the 1950s and vast housing estates were built on the outskirts of the city, cost effective housing that was quick and easy to construct. The city continued to grow outwards.
However it was beginning to consume vast amounts of land for its urban developments. So in the 1960s there came a new approach. The city began growing upwards. 20 story tower blocks were constructed on the outskirts of the city, enabling more people to live on a smaller area of land at a cheaper cost. In the 1970 the same idea was applied to the city center. The Victorian terrace houses that were homes to the factory workers were demolished and were replaced by blocks of flats and the old factories replaced by modern office blocks.
The city center was now growing upwards. By the 1980s the city grew tired from living in tower blocks and now wanted affordable modern houses with their own small plot of land. The 1980s housing estate era had now begun. Greenfield sites on the outskirts had now been transformed into housing estates. The houses were small and practical, first time buyers purchased many of which.
The city had continuing growing outwards for the next decade.In the 1990s the city planners introduced a new policy of urban regeneration. The city’s brownfield sites were redeveloped. Old factories and warehouses were converted into luxury flats. Other factory sites were turned into temporary housing and leisure facilities.
During the last 5 years the city had continued to re-generate its brownfield sites but the pressure to build on the Greenfield sites is continuingly increasing so it is very likely that over time the city will continue growing outwards.________________Overview: what caused city growth in Gloucester?1. Blacksmiths took advantage of the busy east road and built workshops there2. In the 1800s the industrial revolution came and the small workshops were turned into factories3. With the constant need for a supply of coal a network of canals was built in order to supply the factories4.
As more and more factory workers moved into the city the need for accommodation increases and so small terrace houses were built5. Large houses were also in the west side of town built for the wealthy factory owners6. A horse driven tram system was introduced in order to transport workers to the city center7. The horse driven tram system was upgraded to an electrical one8. The war temporarily stopped city growth as supplies needed to be used in the war9. City began growing upwards on the outskirts in order to house more people while using less land and saving money10.
City began growing upwards in the center11. People grew tired of the tower blocks and wanted small affordable homes, the 1980s estate era began12. Brownfield sites were turned into new homes, old factories and warehouses turned into luxury flats and leisure facilities13. The city is continuing growing outwardsUrbanization in South Africa (LEDC) Case StudyWhy do young people move from the rural areas to the cities?Push factors from rural areas1. Rural life provides few basic services2. People need to collect drinking water from a well3.
There may be little sanitation4. No electricity5. People make a living from farming but droughts and crop failures can damage their livelihoods and push them into poverty6. Agricultural life is physically demanding, people have to work long hours for little pay7. There are few jobs outside of farming8. Unemployment can be a problem9.
There is little to occupy young people besides village lifePull factors to the city1. The prospect of higher employment and wealth2. Better services such as piped water supply, sanitation and healthcare3. Living in a city means that you are usually cushioned from the effects of drought and crop failure.4. Prospect of a wider range of jobs, not just farming